Ubuntu:Gutsy ru

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Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)


Contents


Предисловие

Краткая информация о Gutsy

  • Ubuntu 7.10 был выпущен 18 октября 2007.
  • Gutsy Gibbon это преемник Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn (Feisty+1 или следующий выпуск после Feisty).
  • Gutsy будут поддержаны в течение 18 месяцев и на рабочих станциях и на серверах.
  • Пользователи, требующие более длительной поддержки на серверах могут продолжать использовать Ubuntu 6.06 LTS, с поддержкой безопасности до 2011, вместо того, чтобы обновлять или устанавливать 7.10.

Как узнавать, какую версию Ubuntu Вы используете

или на всех версиях и производных Ubuntu используют эту команду:

lsb_release -a

Более новые версии Ubuntu

  • Ubuntu использует шестимесячный цикл выпусков. Выпуски выходят в апреле и октябре.
  • Следующий выпуск запланирован на 24 апреля 2008 под названием Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy Heron), который является Gutsy+1.
  • Hardy Heron будет выпуском с долгосрочной поддержкой (LTS), поддержка обновлений безопасности будет в течение пяти лет для серверов и трех лет для рабочих станций.

Другие версии Ubuntu


Если Вы используете устаревшую версию Ubuntu, Вы должны рассмотреть возможность обновления до Gutsy. Были значительные усовершенствования в этой версии, обновления используемые в Gutsy уменьшат переход к будущим версиям. Если Вы находитесь в окружающей среде производства, или если все работает совершенно для Вас, Вы можете остаться с версией долгосрочной поддержкой (LTS).

  • Ubuntu Upgrade Page
  • Dapper последний LTS и следующая версия Gutsy+1 будет следующим релизом LTS.
  • Прочитайте введение в Gutsy Gibbon с апреля 2007

Общие замечания

  1. Это неофициальное руководство для начинающих пользователей Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon). Оно не связано с Ubuntu и Canonical Ltd.
  2. Обсудить руководство можно на официальном UbuntuGuide.org Forum на ubuntuforums.org. Присоединяйтесь к обсуждению.
  3. Команды, написанные в синей рамке надо выполнять в Терминале (Приложения -> Стандартные -> Терминал) либо использовать содержимое рамки согласно приведенным инструкциям.
  4. Чтобы исключить ошибки при вводе текста, лучше копируйте команды и вставляйте в терминал (правой кнопкой на команде -> "Копировать" или "Вставить". Так же Вы можете использовать горячие клавиши Ctrl+C для копирования и Shift+Insert для вставки).
  5. "sudo" означает действие суперпользователя (администратора, root). "sudo" попросит пароль "Password:". Введите пароль Вашего пользователя.
  6. Если Вы хотите узнать больше о команде, просто посмотрите документацию с помощью команды "man". К примеру: "man sudo" покажет документацию к команде "sudo".
  7. Если вам надоело каждый раз печатать "apt-get" или "aptitude", прочитайте #Графический менеджер пакетов "Synaptic" вместо "apt-get".
  8. При использовании "apt-get" и "wget" для установки/обновления/загрузки программ - необходимо подключение к Интернет.
  9. Все команды "aptitude" можно заменить на "apt-get". Вы можете по прежнему использовать "aptitude" если хотите.
  10. Чтобы загрузить файл, нажмите правой кнопкой мышки на ссылке -> выберите "Сохранить ссылку как..." -> убедитесь в правильности имени и расширения файла.
  11. Если Вы хотите помочь в переводе Ubuntu на ваш родной язык или еще каким-либо способом, посетите Launchpad
  12. И пусть дух гуманности к людям всегда будет с Вами.
Если Вы используете 64битную версию, замените "i386" на "amd64"

Предупреждение о внешних ссылках

Некоторые статьи этого руководства содержат внешние ссылки. Это делает размер руководства короче, предоставляя, тем не менее, качественные howto, инструкции,скриншоты, видео, руководства, и т.д. Однако, Ubuntuguide.org не может сделать проверку качества каждой ссылки. Иногда ссылки могут быть "мертвыми", предоставлять неправильную информацию или изменять свое содержимое. Знайте, что Ubuntuguide.org не может нести ответственности за изменения содержимого внешних ссылок, произошедшие после Вашего посещения. Если Вы обнаружили "мертвую" ссылку, или неправильную информацию в одной из ссылок, пожалуйста поместите здесь ссылку, и секцию руоводства, в которой она найдена. Или, если у Вас есть время, и Вы хотите быть действительно хорошим человеком (:-)), исправьте ссылку, редактируя руководство. Спасибо!!!

Сообщение о "мертвой" или дезинформирущей ссылке

Если Вы обнаружили ""мертвую", или дезинформирующую ссылку, пожалуйста, поместите ее здесь, вместе с секцией руководства, в которой Вы ее нашли. Спасибо!

About Ubuntu and Official Ubuntu Derivatives

Руководства и ссылки Ubuntu 7.10

  • Ubuntu Official Website
  • Offical About Ubuntu Page
  • Official Ubuntu Forums
  • Wikipedia: Ubuntu (Linux Distribution)
  • Ubuntu Geek includes Tips,Howtos,Tutorials and Articles about Ubuntu Linux
  • Ubuntu Tips
Скриншоты Ubuntu
  • Ubuntu 7.10 Screenshots Gallery

Руководства и ссылки Kubuntu 7.10

  • Kubuntu Official Website
  • Kubuntuguide.org
  • Official About Kubuntu Page
  • Official Kubuntu Forums
  • Wikipedia: Kubuntu
Скриншоты Kubuntu
  • Kubuntu 7.10 Screenshots Gallery

Руководства и ссылки Xubuntu 7.10

  • Xubuntu Official Website
  • Wikipedia: Xubuntu
  • Xubuntuguide.org
Скриншоты Xubuntu
  • Xubuntu 7.10 Screenshots Gallery

Руководства и ссылки Edubuntu 7.10

  • Offical Edubuntu Website
  • Wikipedia: Edubuntu

Руководства и ссылки Gobuntu 7.10

  • Wikipedia: Gobuntu

Перевод и локализация

Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese and most European languages have better support in Ubuntu than any other languages. If your language do not have enough support, then you can help Ubuntu by translating it in your preferred language. To translate, visit https://translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu and login (register if not already registered). Choose your preferred language and start translating.

Обновление и установка програмного обеспечения

Как добавить дополнительные зеркала (репозитории)

Work in Progress

Использование репозитариев

  • Сначала выберите репозитарии. Рекомендуемый метод таков:
Система-->Администрирование-->Источники приложений

Выберите репозитарии, которые вам нужны. Репозитарий с исходными кодами программ вам скорее всего не понадобится.

  • Добавление сторонних репозитариев. Такие репозитарии официально не поддерживаются, но, несмотря на это, некоторые из них довольно популярны. Используйте сторонние репозитарии на свой страх и риск.
Система-->Администрирование-->Источники приложений-->Сторонние репозитарии-->Добавить

Добавьте ваш репозитарий. Для этого добавьте строку вида (для примера взят довольно популярный репозитарий Medibuntu):

deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
  • Скачайте все необходимые ключи gpg и добавьте их. Для этого нужно выполнить команду вида (для Medibuntu):
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

Ручной метод

  • Сохраните копию существующего файла зеркал.
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
  • Откройте список с помощью текстового редактора

Пользователям Ubuntu:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • ЗАМЕНИТЕ весь текст, который там есть следующим
Чтобы использовать Российские зеркала, Вы должны добавить "ru." перед archive.ubuntu.com (ru = код России). По умолчанию зеркала США ("us.")
к примеру: deb http://ru.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted
## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted
##Universe
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe
## Multiverse
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse
## Backports
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
## Canonical Partner Repository 
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse
## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
  • Сохраните отредактированный файл
  • Получите ключи для использования новых репозиториев:
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
  • Вы можете создать свой список зеркал и найти другие источники на: Source-o-matic
  • 'Изменяйте стандартный список зеркал Ubuntu только если понимаете, что делаете. Сторонние репозитории могут сломать вашу систему.

Как обновить Ubuntu c Feisty на Gutsy

  • Upgrade Ubuntu Feisty to Gutsy Step By Step Guide Including Screenshots

Как изменить настроики Автоматического Обновления

  • Включите автоматическое обновление в меню:

System-->Administration-->Software Sources-->Updates

Выберите Важные обновления безопасности, Рекомендуемой обновления безопасности и обновления любых других желаемых приложений. Выберите частоту обновления.

Как обновить Ubuntu вручную

  • С помошью коммандной строки:

Используйте страницу http://www.ubuntu-nl.org/source-o-matic/ для генерации файла /etc/apt/sources.list

Сделайте копию существующего файла /etc/apt/sources.list

Создайте новый файл /etc/apt/sources.list скопировав текст из браузера

Теперь выполните следующие команды

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • С помощью меню:
System -> Administration -> Update Manager

Примечание: Для тех, кто пользуется aptitude вместо apt-get, upgrade и dist-upgrade не рекомендуются, вместо них лучше использовать safe-upgrade и full-upgrade, соответственно. -- Sentientfluid 21:25, 11 января 2008 (EET)

Дополнительные приложения

Разные приложения

Данные приложения нужны для домашнего пользователя. Редакторы если будет время разместите эти приложения по нужным категориям. Если категорий нет, создайте их. Уберите это сообщение когда всё будет готово. Спасибо. --KrazyPenguin 06:16, 27 October 2007 (EEST)

WiFi Radar - Простой конфигуратор беспроводной сети в Ubuntu

Если вам нужно настроить беспроводную конфигурацию в ubuntu попробуйте WiFi Radar

  • Simple Wireless Configuration in Ubuntu

Hotwire - Графический терминал Ubuntu

Если Вы хотите графический терминал для Ubuntu проверьте этот, он очень удобен

  • Hotwire Installation Guide

Как установить браузер Epiphany в Ubuntu

Если вы ищете способ установить веб-браузер Epiphany в Ubuntu следуйте данной процедуре

  • Epiphany web browser in Ubuntu

Midori - лёгкий веб-браузер в Ubuntu

Если вы ищете способ установить веб-браузер Midori в Ubuntu следуйте данной процедуре

  • Midori web browser in Ubuntu

apturl - protocol handler in Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon

Если выхотите устанавливать пакеты ubuntu из веб-браузера это достаточно простая утилита

  • apturl Setup guide

sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links

sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links,service command in ubuntu

  • sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links

EasyBCD - A dual-boot manager

EasyBCD is a free Windows-based program that makes it easy to dual-boot Windows Vista and Ubuntu (amongst other distros), safely and quickly.

  • EasyBCD Download
  • Ubuntu and Windows Vista Dual-Boot Pictorial

Как установить qBittorrent в Ubuntu Gutsy

  • Howto Install qBittorrent in Ubuntu Gutsy

Включение поддержки Drag and Drop для aMSN

  • Enable Drag and Drop capabilities to aMSN

Монтирование/Размонтирование .iso образов в один клик

  • Mount/Unmount .iso Images in oneclick in Ubuntu

Менеджер загрузки Startup Manager

StartUp Manager - изменяет настроики Grub, Grub2 и Usplash

  • change settings in Grub, Grub2 and Usplash

Cinelerra - Программа для редактирования видео

Cinelerra - Программа для редактирования видео .если вы хотите установить Cinelerra используйте данную документацию

  • Install Cinelerra in Ubuntu - Video Editing Software

Adobe Reader Gutsy amd64/i386

  • Acrobat Reader 8 with firefox plugins step by step installation guide

Первое

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

Второе

wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update

Третье, вы можете добавить плагини в Reader

sudo aptitude install acroread acroread-plugins acroread-escript

Вы также можете установить плагин для Firefox

sudo aptitude install mozilla-acroread

Если Вы получите сообщение "Unable to find the HTML rendering library (libgtkembedmoz)..."

Установите папки находящиеся в Edit -> Prefences -> Internet

  • Browser Executable: /usr/bin/firefox
  • libgtkembedmoz Folder: /usr/lib/firefox/

Наслаждайтесь Adobe Reader

Дополнения к OpenOffice

Opening .docx files in OpenOffice for Ubuntu (This will work with other distros)

First we need to download the converter, it can be found here> [1] Download the "odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm"

Now install alien, if you have not yet

 sudo apt-get install alien

Then we need to convert it, we do not want a .deb package for this, so we use the -ct switch not the -k The -ct converts it to a .tgz

 sudo alien -ct odf-converter-1.0.0-5.i586.rpm

Once it is converted you need to unpack it

 tar xvf odf-converter-1.0.0.tgz

Now there should be three dirs on you desktop or where ever you un tared these.

You now need to run

 sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/program/OdfConverter /usr/lib/openoffice/program/
 sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Filter/MOOXFilter_cpp.xcu    /usr/lib/openoffice/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Filter
 sudo cp usr/lib/ooo-2.0/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Types/MOOXTypeDetection.xcu /usr/lib/openoffice/share/registry/modules/org/openoffice/TypeDetection/Types

Then you are done, you can now open and edit .docx files ONLY I will post the others when I find them.

There is an alternative to installing the "odf converter" on Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy). The 3 simple steps are as follows:

(make sure you are logged in as root first, so from the terminal, type sudo su - and type in your password when prompted)

Step 1: echo "deb http://ubuntu.org.ua/ getdeb/" >>/etc/apt/sources.list

Step 2: apt-get update

Step 3: apt-get install odf-converter

I did the 3 steps above and got it working on my machine. Please do let me know if anyone is having any problems with it.

Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Program (Gramps)

GRAMPS, the Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Programming System, is an Open Source genealogy program written in Python, using the GTK/GNOME interface. GRAMPS has the ability to import GEDCOM files that are used in such programs as FamilyTree Maker for Windows and can produce reports in various formats such as the popular ABIWord and OpenOffice.org formats as well as HTML and PDF.

sudo apt-get install gramps

Desktop

Ubuntu-tweak

Если вам нужна утилита для графической настройки Ubuntu, попробуйте использовать Ubuntu-tweak

  • Установка Ubuntu-tweak

Чтобы установить ubuntu-tweak, зайдите на сайт http://ubuntu-tweak.com и скачайте самую новую версию программы (в формате deb). Установите её и запускайте команду

ubuntu-tweak

Или в меню "Приложения"-->"Системные"-->Ubuntu Tweak

AMOR - зверёк на вашем рабочем столе

Если вы хотите завести игрушку на вашем рабочем столе то эта программа для вас

  • AMOR - зверёк на вашем рабочем столе

Дополнительные эффекты рабочего стола (Compiz Fusion)

Ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon поставляется с предустановленным Compiz Fusion, а это значит что нужно меньше вносить изменения в важные конфигурационные файлы. В большинстве случаев Compiz-у для корректной работы нужны проприетарные драйвера для вашей видеокарты работает, поэтому убедитесь, что вы установили их, если это необходимо.

Для включения эффектов рабочего стола, перейдите в меню навигации GNOME Система> Настройка> Внешний вид. Под вкладкой визуальные эффекты вы найдете три настройки; None, Normal и Extra. Для включения Compiz выберите один из двух последних вариантов.

Если вы хотите настроить свой Compiz и плагины, например, animations и Desktop Cube, сначала установите утилиту конфигурации:

sudo apt-get install compizconfig-settings-manager

Теперь вам доступны и настройки пользовательского интерфейса из меню Визуальные Эффекты, или менеджер настройки через меню System > Preferences > Advanced Desktop Effects Settings. Вы также можете запустить приложение из терминала или запустить диалог (ALT + F2), используя команду ccsm.

ATI users and Compiz

Some ATI cards don't need their proprietary drivers to work with Compiz as the open-sourced driver (radeon) also has support for 3D acceleration. However, the open-sourced driver isn't as fast as the closed-sourced (fglrx) one, so if you need the proprietary one you'll have to tinker around in the terminal a little.

1. After you've installed the driver, either through the proprietary manager or directly from ATI's site, you'll have to setup the Xorg configuration file to work with your new driver. Always remember to back up the original file before altering, in case something goes wrong. Open up a terminal and enter:

 sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
 sudo aticonfig --initial --input=/etc/X11/xorg.conf

This will disable the default radeon driver and replace it with ATI's own.

2. Now, let's tell Compiz not to care about drivers that are blacklisted:

echo SKIP_CHECKS="yes" >> $HOME/.config/compiz/compiz-manager

Alternatively, you could whitelist the driver, which is a much prettier solution. Run this command to edit the Compiz startup-script:

gksudo gedit /usr/bin/compiz

Search for Driver whitelist and add fglrx to the end of the line, like this:

# Driver whitelist
WHITELIST="nvidia intel ati radeon i810 fglrx"

3. Reboot your computer, login and enable Compiz as mentioned above et voilà! Behold Compiz and ATI hugging.

Live system monitoring

sudo apt-get install netspeed

Right click on the free area of the upper panel and select "Add to Panel...". Add "System Monitor" and "Network Monitor". Right Click on System Monitor and select Preferences. Add the monitor resources that you want to monitor.

Desktop session recording

It is possible to record the whole desktop session along with mouse pointer and sound system. It is a very useful tool for video screenshot as ordinary still picture screenshots generated by pressing Print Screen cannot demonstrate everything. Three applications that can do this for you are Istanbul, Wink and gtk-recordMyDesktop.

Istanbul
sudo apt-get install istanbul
Wink
sudo apt-get install wink
gtk-recordMyDesktop
sudo apt-get install gtk-recordmydesktop

International Clock Gnome Applet (OpenSuse contribution)

To switch to the new international clock applet download it from Here then install it with dpkg.

Remove the old clock gnome applet right-clicking on it and then add a new applet to the panel with a right-click too over the empty place:

>Add to panel...>Miscellaneous>International Clock>Add

You got it.

Add World Map and choose World locations using its Preferences menu

Backup

Ubuntu Backup Options If you want to backup your Ubuntu Desktop Use Sbackup

  • Sbackup Installation and setup guide

rdiff-backup Use rdiff-backup ubuntu

  • rdiff-backup Setp Tutorial

Games

Frozen Bubble

To install Frozen Bubble simply run:

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the package.

How to solve Sudoku

There is a simple Perl script for solving gnome-sudoku. It does not support trial-and-error.

Super Nintendo Emulator (ZSNES) 1.510 for i386/AMD64

  • Read [#[General Notes]]

For support or questions see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=588744

  • Add a 3rd Party Repository

echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update

  • Install using one of the lines below
sudo apt-get install zsnes32 #for amd64 users
sudo apt-get install zsnes   #for everyone else
  • Applications > Games > zsnes or zsnes32

Playstation Emulator (pSX) 1.13 for i386/AMD64

  • Read [#[General Notes]]

For support or questions see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=394097

  • Add a 3rd Party Repository
echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
  • Install using one of the lines below
sudo apt-get install psx32 #for amd64 users
sudo apt-get install psx   #for everyone else
  • Applications > Games > pSX or pSX32

KDE games

To install the games from KDE 3 (recommended for Kubuntu users), install the package kdegames. This can be done with:

sudo apt-get install kdegames

UrbanTerror 4.0

  • UrbanTerror 4.0 is a Multi-player First Person Shooter. The Game uses the open source quake 3 engine and features many real weapons and free to use servers for multi-player functionality.

More information can be found at UrbanTerror

  • You can manually download and install UrbanTerror from the following webpage UrbanTerror_Download
  • Or you can enjoy an automated install by downloading and executing the linux install script from either of the following links: urt40-linux-installer.sh_1 or urt40-linux-installer.sh_2
  • After downloading the script open Terminal into your download directory then make the script executable with the following command:
sudo chmod +x urt40-linux-installer.sh
  • Now double click on the script to execute and follow the directions
  • The install will take awhile as the script executes a download of the necessary files which are about 541MB
  • After the install you will have a nice UrbanTerror icon on your desktop (unless you installed as root)

This easy install script is courtesy of Nexu from the UrbanTerror Forums.

CD/DVD

How to rip a DVD video

dvd::rip is a full featured DVD copy program written in Perl. It provides an easy to use but feature-rich Gtk+ GUI to control almost all aspects of the ripping and transcoding process. It uses the widely known video processing swissknife transcode and many other Open Source tools.

sudo apt-get install dvdrip

How to burn video DVD

dvdauthor is a program that will generate a DVD movie from a valid mpeg2 stream that should play when you put it in a DVD player.

sudo apt-get install dvdauthor

How to burn a CD/DVD

nautilus-cd-burner is a basic and pre-installed program to write a CD or DVD. Serpentine is a pre-installed audio CD creator program. Serpentine can convert flac and mp3 on the fly, when making audio cds. nerolinux is a non-free CD/DVD/Blu-Ray/HD-DVD recorder. k3b is a great CD/DVD writing tool for KDE (ideal for Kubuntu users). But if you are looking for GTK/Gnome alternatives, then brasero, cdw/gcdw, gcdmaster, graveman and gnomebaker might impress you.

dvdisaster provides a margin of safety against data loss on CD and DVD media caused by scratches or aging media. It creates error correction data which is used to recover unreadable sectors if the disc becomes damaged at a later time.

Internet

Browser Plug-ins

Ubuntu automatically installs plug-ins required to browse a site in Firefox. But if you want to install plug-ins run the following in Terminal:

For Java plug-in:

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin

For Flash plug-in:

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree

Or if you want to support the open source flash plugin:

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-gnash

For VLC plug-in (automatically installs VLC also):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-vlc

For MPlayer plug-in (automatically installs MPlayer also):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer

For Real player plug-in (automatically installs helix-player):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-helix-player

For kaffeine plug-in (automatically installs kaffeine also):

sudo apt-get install kaffeine-mozilla

For image-zoom plug-in (to zoom images in a page):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-imagezoom

For adblock plug-in (to block ads in a web page):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-firefox-adblock

Gutsy includes the option to add extensions to Firefox through the Ubuntu repositories. The option to add these extensions is included by default. To see and add Ubuntu Add-ons:

  • In Firefox, Go to Tools > Add-ons
  • Click "Get Ubuntu Addons"
  • To see all available add-ons, click the list next to "Show:" and choose "All Available Applications"
  • Choose whichever add-ons you want, and click "Apply Changes"
  • You can see which add-ons you've installed in the normal Firefox add-on box.

(Note: All Ubuntu add-ons are also available through the Synaptic package manager.)

Flash 9 on 64 bits system (x86_64)


To know if this tip is relevant to your machine, you need to know the instruction set. Run the following in Terminal:

uname -m

If the output is x86_64 the following procedures are the way to go to install the 'original' but close source Flash 9. Try this method first before what you might have read about installing Firefox32 or other scripts. Here we go. First make sure you have a .mozilla folder:

ls -a $HOME

If the folder is present, skip the next line of code. If not, we create it anyway (Usually, it's because no Mozilla derived browser, like Firefox, is installed on the system yet. Installing a Mozilla derived browser automatically creates that .mozilla folder):

mkdir $HOME/.mozilla/plugins

Retrieve the flash binaries from macromedia:

wget http://fpdownload.macromedia.com/get/flashplayer/current/install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz

Open the archive:

tar -xvzf install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz

Enter the archive:

cd install_flash_player_9_linux

Copy libflashplayer.so to the plugins folder. Note: Don't run the flashplayer-installer executable present in the install_flash_player_9_linux folder:

sudo cp libflashplayer.so $HOME/.mozilla/plugins

Install nspluginwrapper

sudo apt-get install nspluginwrapper

Install a wrapper

nspluginwrapper -i $HOME/.mozilla/plugins/libflashplayer.so

Exit X just to make sure every browser session gets killed. Once back in, go to nvidia.com to test flash:

Ctrl+Alt+Backspace

NOTE: Before executing ctrl+alt+backspace, read on:If you are not automatically redirected to a graphical login prompt, Ubuntu and Xubuntu users should run the following when stuck in text mode:

sudo /etc/init.d/gmd restart

Kubuntu users run:

sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart  

Fluxbuntu users run:

sudo /etc/init.d/slim restart
Shockwave

There is no version of Shockwave for Ubuntu/Linux but WINE can be used to run it. This method will result in 2 Firefox Browsers installed on the computer. Only use the WINE version when using a website that requires it. The native version of Firefox will give better computer performance, so it should used in all other occurrences.

  • Install WINE
  • Download and install Firefox for Windows
  • Download and install Shockwave for Windows

Менеджер загрузок (Downloader for X)

Чтобы установить Downloader for X (d4x) просто выполните эту команду:

sudo apt-get install d4x

FTP client (FileZilla)

FileZilla is a powerful FTP client that came from windows enviroment. Reaching its third version it became cross-platform and is available through the Ubuntu Gutsy Repositories.

To install FileZilla FTP client simply run:

sudo apt-get install filezilla

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "filezilla" package.

Configuring Evolution for Gmail

Visit http://mail.google.com/mail/ and click settings (should be in top right corner). Select Forwarding and POP/IMAP.

  • If you want to use POP, select either "Enable POP for all mail (even mail that's already been downloaded)" or "Enable POP only for mail that arrives from now on".
  • If you want to use IMAP, select "Enable IMAP".

Save changes.

Open Evolution from Applications -> Internet -> Evolution Mail. If no mail account has been created before, a mail account setup wizard will automatically be opened. Otherwise open it from Edit -> preferences -> Mail Accounts -> Add. Click Forward. Enter your email address for Gmail (including @gmail.com). Click Forward.

  • If you have enabled POP from Gmail set "Server Type" to POP, "Server" to pop.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption".
  • If you have enabled IMAP from Gmail, set "Server Type" to IMAP, "Server" to imap.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption".

Click Forward. Click Forward. Set "Server" to smtp.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption". Click Forward. Click Forward. Click Apply.

Note that IMAP support for GMAIL is being rolled-out currently (Oct. 2007) but is not available to everyone with a GMAIL account yet. So use POP until IMAP is available for every user.

SwiftFox

Swiftfox is the Firefox web browser, but built with optimizations to increase speed on specific CPU types. It is compatible with all Firefox extensions and themes, and uses the same settings location as Firefox, so you can use both transparently.

Instructions from getswiftfox.com

  • Add the Swiftfox repository
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add this line at the bottom
deb http://getswiftfox.com/builds/debian unstable non-free
  • Update apt sources
apt-get update
  • Check your CPU compatibility here
  • Install your version of Swiftfox
apt-get install swiftfox-pentium4
  • Run with
Programs > Internet > Swiftfox
  • There is also an [installer] available that is distro independent. It is a script that downloads and installs Swiftfox in the /opt directory and attempts to use existing Firefox plugins. The installer is probably the best way for most non-Ubuntu and non-Debian users to install Swiftfox.

Azureus (Java BitTorrent client)

The simplest way to install Azureus is:

sudo apt-get install azureus

But it has lots of dependencies. An alternate method is discussed here. Additionally you can create a file /usr/share/applications/Azureus.desktop containing the following lines to make it appear in the main menu:

[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8 Type=Application Terminal=false Name=Azureus Exec=/usr/local/azureus/azureus Comment=Java BitTorrent client Categories=Application;Network; MimeType=application/x-bittorrent; Icon=/usr/local/azureus/Azureus.png

(here it is assumed that azureus is installed in /usr/local directory)

Update: A brand-new Azureus package is now available in gutsy-backports, which is highly preferable to the version in the main repositories. It fixes many stability problems and is compiled using icedtea/Java 7. By the time you read this, it may be available in the main repositories. Therefore you might want to make sure you have the gutsy-backports repository enabled before installing azureus via apt-get.

Deluge (A lightweight BitTorrent client written in python)

If you want a client with lower memory and CPU usage than Azureus you might want to try out Deluge. However, due to stability problems with the version available in the Ubuntu repository, it's probably better to install the latest version using the handy Gutsy-specific package from the official Deluge website. To install, just click on the debian package for your version and architecture (i386 for 32-bit systems and x86_64 for 64-bit systems) and choose to run it with GDebi package installer.

DC++ client (Linuxdcpp)

  • Install:
sudo apt-get install linuxdcpp
  • Then go

Main Menu->Intenet->DC++

Using mobile phone/GPRS/EDGE as Internet modem

  • Create a file called 'gprs':
sudo gedit /etc/chatscripts/gprs
  • Paste the text below in the file and save and close it:
TIMEOUT		120
ABORT           'BUSY'
ABORT           'ERROR'
ABORT           'NO CARRIER'
''              'ATE1'
OK		AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet"
OK		ATD*99***#3
# or OK		ATD*99#
CONNECT		\d\c
  • Note: Pay attention to the line containing 'AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet"'. This might vary depending on your mobile service provider. It would be best to call customer service and make sure you get the 'APN' from them.
  • Create another file called 'gprs'. Notice that it's a different location:
sudo gedit /etc/ppp/peers/gprs
  • Paste the text below in the file and save and close it:
# You usually need this if there is no PAP authentication
noauth
# The chat script (be sure to edit that file, too!)
connect "/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/chatscripts/gprs"
# Set up routing to go through this PPP link
defaultroute
# Set this to /dev/ircomm0 or similar
/dev/ttyACM0
# Speed
115200
# Reconnect on disconnect
persist
# Be extra verbose
debug
# You may need these
passive
noipdefault
noproxyarp
ipcp-accept-local
ipcp-accept-remote
ipcp-restart 2
ipcp-max-configure 20
ipcp-max-failure 20
asyncmap 0xa0000
novj
nodeflate
nobsdcomp
# Use remote DNS
usepeerdns
# With GPRS, authentication is normally done  automatically
# via your cellphone number, so leave login name empty
user ""
  • Note: Pay attention to the line containing '/dev/ttyACM0'. This port might vary depending on your phone model and connection type. I also made it a choice to connect directly to /dev/ttyACM0. You could always symlink to /dev/modem by running the command:
sudo ln -sf /dev/ttyACM0 /dev/modem
  • Create yet another file called 'gprs':
sudo gedit /usr/sbin/gprs
  • Paste the text below in the file and save and close it:
#!/bin/bash
PATH="/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/usr/local/bin"
export PATH
XDIALOG_HIGH_DIALOG_COMPAT=1
export XDIALOG_HIGH_DIALOG_COMPAT
# Get root
[ "`id -u`" != "0" ] && exec sudo "$0" "$@"
TMP="/tmp/gprsconnect$$"
bailout(){
rm -f "$TMP"
exit 0
}
DIALOG="dialog"
[ -n "$DISPLAY" ] && [ -x /usr/bin/Xdialog ] && DIALOG="Xdialog"
trap bailout 1 2 3 15
# LANGUAGE etc.
[ -f /etc/sysconfig/knoppix ] && . /etc/sysconfig/knoppix
[ -z "$LANG" ] && export LANG
[ -z "$LANGUAGE" ] && export LANGUAGE
[ -z "$CHARSET" ] && export CHARSET
disconnect(){
poff
#$DIALOG --clear --title "$TITLE1" --msgbox "$MESSAGE_DISCONNECT" 8 35
exit 0
}
trap disconnect 1 2 3 15
#$DIALOG --title "$TITLE1" --yesno "$MESSAGE1" 12 65 || bailout
#[ -x /etc/init.d/sysklogd ] && /etc/init.d/sysklogd start >/dev/null 2>&1
# echo "AT" >/dev/modem
sleep 1
if [ -n "$DISPLAY" ] && type xterm >/dev/null; then
pon gprs
xterm -T "$TITLE_LOG" -e bash -c 'tail -n 0 -f /var/log/messages | egrep -e "(chat|ppp)"'
disconnect
else
# Start pppd right here.
pppd updetach call gprs 
sleep 2
exit 0
fi
  • Make the file executable by running the following command:
sudo chmod +x /usr/sbin/gprs
  • Connect your phone to the cable and and make sure it's powered on. (When I run the 'lsusb' command I get 'Bus 003 Device 006: ID 22b8:4802 Motorola PCS'. This is because I have a motorola phone with USB modem connected to my Ubuntu box.)
  • Note: Make sure the phone itself already has the gprs service configured on it. This can be done by your dealer. Some service providers can send the settings (gprs template) to your phone and you can save it.
  • Try connecting to the internet by running the following command:
sudo gprs
  • Note: Use this method if you don't don't already have access to an internet connection. If you are using Ubuntu and you have internet access you can always install kppp and configure it to use your phone modem. If you are using Kubuntu you should already either have kppp installed.

Multimedia Players

How to install Mplayer with Multimedia Codecs

Simple guide for mplayer and codecs

  • Mplayer with Multimedia Codecs Installation Tutorials
  • Download SMPlayer (a great front-end for MPlayer) from here and double click to install it. The smplayer front-end is also available to install through synaptic package manager.


Mplayer on 64bit with wmv9 support

Playing wmv9 files on AMD64 doesn't exactly work out of the box. To get it working, you will have to install the 32bit version of mplayer, along with all the necessary codecs. On my relatively new install of Gutsy, I didn't need to install any library files, which made getting it to work that much easier. That being said, follow these steps and you should be watching wmv9 files in no time.

Download the version of mplayer32 for Edgy (it works fine) and place into temporary directory

mkdir mplayer32temp
cd mplayer32temp
wget http://folk.ntnu.no/grannas/debs/mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb

Extract the package you just downloaded, and install to the proper locations (hit 'n' when it asks to replace a file)

sudo dpkg -x mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb ./
sudo mv -i usr/bin/* /usr/bin/
sudo mv -i usr/lib32/* /usr/lib32/

Get the latest win32 codecs from mplayerhq (link is current as of Nov 04, 2007), extract and install (again, hit 'n' when it asks to replace a file)

wget http://www3.mplayerhq.hu/MPlayer/releases/codecs/essential-20071007.tar.bz2
tar jxfv essential-20071007.tar.bz2
sudo mv -i essential-20071007/* /usr/lib/win32/

play a wmv9 file and enjoy.

mplayer32 foobar.wmv

How to install amaroK Multimedia Player

  • Note: Amarok is already installed if you are using KDE.
sudo apt-get install amarok
  • Run from menu:

Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK

How to uninstall amaroK

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove amarok

How to get Mouse over preview of MP3 files working

sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio-esound-compat
sudo apt-get install libasound2-plugins

The above method breaks the sound in Skype

you can also get Mouse over preview to work by installing:

sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install mpg123-esd
sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools
sudo apt-get install esound
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras

with this system Skype still functions

Как установить VLC Media Player

sudo apt-get install vlc

Чтобы удалить VLC Media Player:

sudo apt-get --purge remove vlc

How to install Banshee Music Manager and Player

sudo apt-get install banshee

To uninstall:

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove banshee

How to encode/decode audios

There is a great command line tool, sox which not just a ordinary encoder/decoder but a good composer. Read its manual for more information.

Input(s) → Balancing → Combiner → Effects → Output

sudo apt-get install sox

sox cannot handle Real Audio format. For that you need mplayer which converts a .rm file to a .wav file and then use sox to convert wave file to other file.

mplayer -ao pcm:file=output.wav input.rm

How to encode/decode videos

mencoder, avidemux, transcode, ffmpeg2theora, etc. are some video converting tools. Read their manuals for information.

sudo apt-get install mencoder avidemux transcode ffmpeg2theora

How to edit audios

sudo apt-get install lmms
sudo apt-get install audacity

How to edit videos

sudo apt-get install ubuntustudio-video

Text-to-Speech

Visit https://help.ubuntu.com/community/TextToSpeech

Programming / Web Development

Quanta Plus

(Quanta is a KDE application, but also works on GNOME.) To install Quanta, HTML/XML/PHP/Etc Web Creation Software:

sudo apt-get install quanta kompare kxsldbg cervisia

Applications > Programming > Quanta Plus

Netbeans IDE

Netbeans is a platform independent IDE for Java. But it also supports C/C++, Ruby, portals and lots of other stuffs as plug-ins. At the point of writing, version 5.5.1 is the latest stable release and can be installed by:

sudo apt-get install netbeans5.5

Alternately you can download Netbeans 6.0 and install it manually. The size of the installation package varies from 11 MB to 200 MB.

Netbeans with Web & Java EE pack

If you want to use NetBeans for web development and want to integrate with Java EE, download the "Netbeans with Web & Java EE" pack. The plug-in mechanism of installing additional modules are not recommended as it installs it on user directory (~/.netbeans/6.0beta2/modules/) rather than system-wide installation directory (/usr/local/netbeans-6.0beta2/nb6.0/modules/).

Netbeans with Web & Java EE pack comes with 2 built in runtime environments:

   * GlassFish V2 Build 58g
   * Apache Tomcat 6.0.14 

Those are ideal for both development and production use. Thus you do not have to install either Sun Java Application Server of Apache Tomcat separately. Also uninstalling Netbeans will not uninstall them. You have to uninstall them separately.

But in case you want to install the servers separately, you typically have to run Netbeans as root. Alternately, you can also change the configuration files' owner/group and permissions of Tomcat and GlassFish to work with Netbeans.

Eclipse IDE

Eclipse IDE is an alternative of Netbeans IDE. Actually, it is somewhat more popular among Linux users. You can install eclipse directly from Eclipse website or can install it using apt-get:

sudo apt-get install eclipse

Anjuta IDE

Anjuta is an IDE used primarily for C/C++ development. Not as robust as other itegrated development environments. However, tt does feature some useful plugins that provide functionality that most other IDE's have. (GUI development, project wizards, etc.)

sudo apt-get install anjuta

Utilities

Compression tools

Zip, Gzip и Bzip2 - самые популярные архиваторы для Linux (они есть в практически каждом дистрибутиве). Но существуют и такие форматы, как 7z, rar и ace. 7-zip - проект с открытыми исходниками, а rar и ace нет.

sudo apt-get install rar unrar sudo apt-get install p7zip-full sudo apt-get install unace

Графическими распаковщиками являются:

  • Для Gnome: File Roller
sudo apt-get install file-roller
  • Для KDE: Ark
sudo apt-get install ark

Clipboard Manager (Glipper)

To install Glipper simply run:

sudo apt-get install glipper

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "glipper" package.

Password Manager (KeePassX)

KeePass is a crossplatform password manager. To install it simply run:

sudo apt-get install keepassx

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "keepassx" package.

How to fix/integrate bluetooth with nautilus

On Some systems bluetooth "Browse Device" fuction doesn't work properly.

To Fix This:

sudo apt-get install gnome-vfs-obexftp

or

sudo aptitude install gnome-vfs-obexftp

How to install Google Earth (World map utility)

Google earth is a world map viewer. It can show 3D buildings and bridges in 3D view. It shows satellite pictures by default. The latest version also includes sky viewer. See http://earth.google.com/ for more details.

Google Earth is available in the Medibuntu Package archive. To install google-earth from Medibuntu:

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update sudo aptitude install googleearth

Alternatively you can install Google Earth directly from the Google installer:

Download Google Earth in to Your Desktop. Open terminal and run:

chmod +x Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin sudo Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin

Follow the instructions to complete the instructions. To uninstall Google earth, do the following:

sudo su /opt/google-earth/uninstall

How to install Picasa (photo organizer from Google)

Picasa is software that helps you instantly find, edit and share all the pictures on your computer. Picasa makes advanced editing simple by putting one-click fixes and powerful effects at your fingertips. And Picasa makes it a snap to share your pictures – you can email, print photos home, and even post pictures on your own blog. You can install it in four ways:

   * Download directly the Debian/Ubuntu (.deb) version and install.
   * Visit http://www.google.com/linuxrepositories/ and see the instructions about how to add Google repository. Then run: 

sudo apt-get install picasa

   * Download the Self-extracting installer and follow the instruction set for Google Earth.
   * Install the Windows version (with the help of WINE). 

How to install Google Desktop (search utility)

Google Desktop is a desktop search application that gives you easy access to information on your computer and from the web. Desktop makes searching your own email, files, music, photos, and more as easy as searching the web with Google. You can download Google Desktop in two ways:

   * Download and install the Debian package directly from http://desktop.google.com/en/linux/download.html
   * Visit http://www.google.com/linuxrepositories/ and see the instructions about how to add Google repository. Then run: 

sudo apt-get install google-desktop-linux

How to install ntop (network monitoring utility)

Ntop is a network monitoring utility. You can monitor local devices as well as devices with Netflow output (like a Cisco router). It's very easy to install too, open a terminal and type:

sudo apt-get install ntop

Now that it is installed, you have to do some basic setup. Once again, in the terminal, type:

sudo ntop

You will be asked for a password, and then to confirm the password. This will be the admin password for the ntop web interface. Now, again in the terminal type:

sudo /etc/init.d/ntop start

Thats it! ntop is running! Try browsing to http://127.0.0.1:3000 to get started. Visit http://www.ntop.org/ for more information.


How to install applications for study of religious texts

   * For study of Bible see GnomeSword
   * For study of Quran see Zekr 

How to install Gnomesword (Bible study program)

   * Read #General Notes
   * Read #How to add extra repositories
   * This installs the english version of the program. 

sudo apt-get install gnomesword sword-language-pack-en sword-text-web

   * If you require other languages type: 

sudo apt-cache search bible

   * Take a look at the sword-language-pack's and the sword-text's for additional languages and install as needed. 

Gnomesword is found under Applications-->Accessories.

   * Under KDE, use kio-sword instead of Gnomesword: 

sudo apt-get install kio-sword

How to install a Quran researching tool (Zekr)

Zekr is an open platform Quran study tool for simply browsing and researching on the Quran.

sudo wget http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/zekr.list wget -q http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/zekr.debian.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install zekr ttf-me-quran ttf-sil-scheherazade sudo apt-get install ttf-farsiweb flashplugin-nonfree

   * Zekr comes with extra Quran translations in Persian, Urdu, French, Russian, English, Turkish, Bosnian, Dutch packaged as zekr-quran-translations-XY where XY is the ISO code of the language. Run 

apt-cache search zekr-quran-translations

in a shell to list them all. Then among the result list choose the appropriate package and install it: For example if you want to install English Quran Translations run the following command:

sudo apt-get install zekr-quran-translations-en

QGRUBEditor - Визуальный редактор конфигурации GRUB

QGRUBEditor - Визуальный редактор конфигурации GRUB

  • A visual GRUB configuration editor


   * For more info see Zekr wiki.

How to install applications for Education

How to install Mnemosyne

Mnemosyne is a sophisticated free flash-card tool which optimizes your learning process. To install the latest version in the repositories run the following command

sudo apt-get install mnemosyne

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System => Administration menu, to locate and install the mnemosyne package.

To install the latest version (the one in the repository is somewhat out of date) first install the dependencies:

sudo apt-get install python python-pygame python-qt3 python-support python-xml

then download the latest source package from here:

wget http://superb-east.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/mnemosyne-proj/mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz (correct as of 11 Nov 2007)

Decompress it:

tar -xzf mnemosyne-0.9.10.tgz

go to the directory

cd mnemosyne-0.9.10/

run this command to install it:

sudo python setup.py install

To create a launcher for it in your Applications Menu:

System => Preferences => Main Menu => Education (or wherever) => New Item: Name: Mnemosyne Command: mnemosyne

Security

How to recover user passwords

sudo apt-get install john sudo john /etc/shadow

How to reset root password

Restart Ubuntu in safe mode and type:

passwd

to change root password.

How to create or change GRUB menu password

Visit here.

How to change root password if grub password is forgotten

Visit here. To prevent this, you have to set a bios password and set hard disk as the first boot device.

Servers

Samba Server

How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Save the edited file
  • To edit network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

How to share home folders with read only or read/write permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Remove the ; in front of the following lines (there will text in between explaining what they do):
;[homes]
;comment = Home Directories
;browseable = no
;valid users = %S
;writable = yes
    • If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder then change
 # By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
 # parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
 ;   writable = no
    • Replace with the following lines
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder change
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody 
  force group = nogroup
  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart


How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of /etc/samba/smb.conf (for a read-only folder)
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
  writable = yes


  • 2. Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

 sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
 gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
Find the following lines
 ...
 # printing = cups
 # printcap name = cups
 ...
and uncomment them.
 printing = cups
 printcap name = cups
Restart cups server
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.


iTunes-compatible Media server

If you want iTunes-compatible Media server in Ubuntu try this

   * iTunes-compatible Media server Step By Step Guide

GLPI - IT and asset Managemet Software

If you want IT and asset Managemet Software in Ubuntu try this nice application

   * IT and asset Managemet Software Setup Guide

PostgreSQL

Postgresql is a well supported and open source database server. There is a long debate regarding whether MySQL is better or PostgreSQL. Actually, there are similar debates like it: Gnome vs KDE, Perl vs Python, PHP vs JSP, Java vs .Net (or Mono). But from installation point of view, it has been seen that PostgreSQL is lighter and requires less dependency than MySQL.

Installing PostgreSQL

To Install PostgreSQL (both client and server):

sudo apt-get install postgresql-8.2

To install PostgreSQL documentation:

sudo apt-get install postgresql-doc-8.2

To install JDBC3 driver for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install libpg-java

To enable php support for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install php5-pgsql

To do administrative works graphically:

sudo apt-get install pgadmin3

To do web-based administrative works:

sudo apt-get install phppgadmin

Configuring PostgreSQL

To use postgresql, create a database instance and a user/role:

sudo -u postgres createdb $USER sudo -u postgres createuser $USER

Making both database instance and user/role as your login ID lets you to start PostgreSQL client very easily:

psql

To login as the administrator:

sudo -u postgres psql

To be able to login from remote machine or from PHP or through JDBC driver, you have to set your password from PostgreSQL client (psql):

ALTER USER user PASSWORD 'pass';

replace user and pass by your user name and password respectively. To test whether remote login works or not, run:

psql -h host -p 5432 -d database -U user

Visit http://www.php.net/manual/en/ref.pgsql.php to see how php works with PostgreSQL.

Using pgadmin3

To configure PostgreSQL using pgadmin3:

   * Open psql client as administrator postgres (see above Configure PostgreSQL)
   * Change the password for the administrator postgres (see above)
   * Open Applications -> System Tools -> pgAdmin III from main menu.
   * Open File -> Add Server...
   * Set Address to localhost or 127.0.0.1 (or something you have set)
   * Give a Description by which this connection will be identified.
   * Accept default port (5432), SSL (_blank_), Maintenance DB (postgres) and Username (postgres)
   * set the Password that you have set earlier. Click OK. 

Using phppgadmin

To configure PostgreSQL using phppgadmin run:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/phppgadmin /var/www/phpPgAdmin

Set a password for administrator: postgres (see #Configuring_PostgreSQL).

Open /etc/phppgadmin/config.inc.php and change:

$conf['extra_login_security'] = false;

It will enable administrative login. Finally visit http://localhost/phpPgAdmin/ to login.

Using PostgreSQL with OpenOffice

   * Open Applications -> Office -> OpenOffice.org Database.
   * Select 'Connect to an existing database'. From the list select JDBC and click Next.
   * Make Datasource URL to: 

jdbc:postgresql://localhost/database

Replace localhost by your hostname, database by the database instance you have created.

   * Set JDBC driver class to: 

org.postgresql.Driver

   * Click 'Test class' to make sure JDBC driver class connects Datasource URL properly. Click Next.
   * Type your User name and select 'Password required' option.
   * Click Test connection. A popup dialog will appear. Enter your password and click OK.
   * If everything works properly, then a confirmation dialog will appear.
   * Click Next. Some optional settings will appear. Click Finish to complete. 

Using PostgreSQL JDBC driver

The following Java code is a simple program to illustrate how JDBC can be used with Postgresql:

// pgVersion.java

import java.sql.*;

class pgVersion {

public static void main(String arg[]) throws Exception {
 if(arg.length!=4) {
  System.out.println("usage: java pgVersion host database user password");
  return;
 }
 // Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
 Driver driver=new org.postgresql.Driver();
 DriverManager.registerDriver(driver);
 String url="jdbc:postgresql://"+arg[0]+"/"+arg[1]+"?user="+arg[2]+"&password="+arg[3];
 Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection(url);
 Statement stat=conn.createStatement();
 ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()");
 rs.next();
 System.out.println(rs.getString("version"));
 rs.close();
 stat.close();
 conn.close();
 DriverManager.deregisterDriver(driver);
}

}

You can run the former code in two ways:

   * Using CLASSPATH environment variable: 

export CLASSPATH=/usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:. javac pgVersion.java java pgVersion host database user password

Here host, database, user and password should be substituted according to your configuration. To make $CLASSPATH permanent, you have to save the command in either /etc/bash.bashrc or ~/.bashrc.

   * Alternately, you can run as follows: 

javac -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar pgVersion.java java -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:. pgVersion host database user password

The output is as expected:

PostgreSQL 8.2.5 on i486-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by GCC cc (GCC) 4.1.3 20070831 (prerelease) (Ubuntu 4.1.2-16ubuntu1)

MySQL

According to this page both MySQL and PostgreSQL are good alternatives of proprietary softwares like DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL Server etc.

To install both the server and client:

sudo apt-get install mysql-server-5.0

db4free is a great database server for tryout different things remotely. If you want to use this site, then you do not have to install MySQL server. Just install the client, documentation and php or jdbc connectivity.

IBM DB2

Visit here for software available from IBM. According to this page, DB2 can be installed on ubuntu.

Download

To download DB2 trial visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Data Server trial. Then you have to sign in (create an account if not already created) in order to download. Choose either of the following:

   * DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on AMD64 and Intel(R) EM64T systems (x64)
   * DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on System z 

Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Alternately, visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Express-C. Then choose DB2 Express-C 9.5 for Linux and click continue. Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally select either of the following:

   * DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture
   * DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 64-bit architecture 

click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Installing DB2

I choose 'DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture' to demonstrate how to install. If you have chosen a different version, make necessary changes accordingly. Let's assume the downloaded file is on your home directory. Then do the following:

tar -xf db2exc_950_LNX_x86.tar.gz cd ~/exp sudo apt-get install libaio1 sudo ./db2setup

Select 'Install a Product' from the left side of the generated window and click 'Install New'. Another window will be opened. Then following the instructions to complete the installation. You are encouraged to create new user and groups (dasusr1/dasadm1, db2inst1/db2iadm1, db2fenc1/db2fadm1) during installation.

Uninstalling DB2

If you have installed with all default settings (as mentioned above) then just running the following commands would remove the db2 completely. In case you have changed something during installation, then make appropriate changes accordingly.

cd /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5 ./instance/db2ilist sudo instance/db2idrop db2inst1 sudo install/db2_deinstall -a cd && sudo rm -r /opt/ibm/ sudo userdel -r dasusr1 sudo userdel -r db2fenc1 sudo userdel -r db2inst1 sudo groupdel dasadm1 sudo groupdel db2fadm1 sudo groupdel db2iadm1

Before running those commands, please make sure:

   * Make sure, db2 is not running.
   * Identify DB2 installation directory (E.g /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5)
   * Identify DB2 instances (using db2ilist command, see the second command)
   * Drop each and every instances (using db2idrop command, third command)
   * If you have other IBM softwares in /opt/ibm then remove only /opt/ibm/db2 directory.
   * Delete user and group accounts that you have created for db2. 

Oracle database

   * Download Oracle database XE from here. Then follow the instructions to complete the installation.
   * Alternately, visit this page to see some installation guides provided by some users. This page is particularly seems very useful. (--Tamal 07:51, 14 November 2007 (EET)) 

A problem might occur if your swap space is less than 1 GB. In that case you have to do the following:

   * Turn off the swap space. (run 'man swapoff' for help)
   * Resize the swap partition. (run 'man fdisk' and 'man cfdisk' for help)
   * Restart the system. (not mandatory, but recommended)
   * Edit the /etc/fstab file to update the UUID of the swap partition. (#How_to_find_the_UUID_of_a_device)
   * Turn on the swap space. (run 'man swapon' for help) 

SSH

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

   * Read #General Notes
   * Read #How to add extra repositories 

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu host

   * Read #General Notes 

The Ubuntu host must be running the SSH Server. Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service.

In this example:

Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.2 username is a valid user on the remote host

ssh username@192.168.0.2

You can tunnel to a URL as well:

ssh username@foobar.dyndns.org

If your LAN uses a dynamic IP to connect to the Internet, you can use a Dynamic IP service (such as DynDNS) to assign a static URL to your LAN (foobar.dyndns.org, for example). An SSH request over the Internet to your URL (e.g. foobar.dyndns.org) would then be routed by the DynDNS service to your modem/router. Your router must then be set to forward the port used for the SSH tunnel to your host machine on the LAN. (SSH tunnels generally occur by default over port 22, but it can be changed (see below)).

For some humor: Read Etymology of foobar. You can explicitly select the port number (instead of port 22) for the SSH tunnel:

ssh username@foobar.dyndns.org:11022

However, if you do this, the host SSH server must be listening on the same port (port 11022 in the example). The port to listen to can be set in the ssdh_config file of the OpenSSH server (provided in Ubuntu) on your host. Also, your router must be configured to forward port 11022 to your OpenSSH host.

How to change SSH Server Port Number

   * Read #General Notes
   * Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service 

Open /etc/ssh/sshd_config for editing

gksu gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Look for the line

  1. What ports, IPs and protocols we listen for

Port 22

Change 22 to the value you want, then save and restart the SSH server

sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart

Using SSH to Port Forward

   * Read #General Notes
   * The Ubuntu host must be running the SSH Server. Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service.
   * The format of the client command to create an SSH tunnel to an OpenSSH host listening on the default port 22 is: 

ssh -L <local port>:<remote computer>:<remote port> <user>@<remote ip>

An example is:

ssh -L 6669:94.92.10.15:6667 foowho

In this example, local port 6669 on the local client computer is tunneled by encrypted SSH over the default port 22 to the router at 94.92.10.15. The router must be set up to forward port 22 to whatever the internal LAN IP (such as 192.168.0.56) of the SSH host is. The host is running OpenSSH (ssdh service) and is set to listen to port 22. It then routes the incoming data to the host port 6667, where presumably some other program is waiting for data. foowho has an account on the host running the OpenSSH server.

SSH tunnels can also be established using URLs and even alternate ports. An example is:

ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho -p 11022

In this example, local port 5900 on the client is forwarded through an SSH tunnel on port 11022 to foobar.dyndns.org. The DNS service translates foobar.dyndns.org into the appropriate WAN (Internet) IP address, where the router is listening. The router is set up to forward port 11022 to the LAN machine hosting the OpenSSH server, which is listening on port 11022. It then sends the data to whatever program is running on port 5900 on the host.

   * You can forward a local port to a different port on the remote host. 
   Example: Make port 80 (web server/browser) on the remote host at 10.0.2.10 available locally as port 81 

ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 user@office.net

   * You can create secure SSH tunnels to multiple hosts using multiple ports. 

ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 -L 82:10.0.2.20:80 -L 83:10.0.2.30:80 user@office.net

Now, local port 81 locally forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.10, local port 82 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.20 and local port 83 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.30. In this example, user has an account on all three host machines at 10.0.2.10, 10.0.2.20, and 10.0.2.30.

   * Once port forwarding is set up by ssh, an application is directed to the SSH tunnel for port usage by using the loopback as the destination. 
   Example 1: 

ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 user@office.net

http://localhost:81 or http://127.0.0.1/:81

will direct a web browser to use port 81 locally, which is being redirected by SSH to port 80 on the remote host at 10.0.2.10.

   Example 2: 

ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho vncviewer 127.0.0.1 or vncviewer localhost

will direct vncviewer (which uses port 5900 by default) to direct its traffic through the ssh tunnel to the host at foobar.dyndns.org, where, presumably, a VNC server is listening on port 5900.

SSH Filesystem

install package: sshfs, see http://fuse.sourceforge.net/sshfs.html

sudo aptitude update sudo aptitude install sshfs

Optionally, add user to group fuse to manage mount-point permissions.

sudo adduser <local user> fuse

(propogate new group membership: restart or open new shell, e.g., Ctrl+Alt+F1)

Create writable mount point, e.g, <mount point> = /media/remote

sudo mkdir <mount point> sudo chgrp fuse <mount point> sudo chmod 775 <mount point>

Mount command

sshfs [<user>@]<host>:[<path>] <mount point>

Unmount command

fusermount -u <mount point>

Ubuntu 7.10 LAMP Server

If you are looking for simple LAMP Server setup in 15min including webmin installation this is for you

   * Ubuntu 7.10 LAMP Server Step By Step Guide 

(This requires the server version of Gutsy Gibbon, not the standard desktop edition)

How to install Apache and PHP5

Install Apache

sudo aptitude install apache2

Install PHP5 and the Apache PHP5 module

sudo aptitude install php5 libapache2-mod-php5

Restart Apache

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Go to http://localhost to verify the installation. If you want to change the port, edit the file /etc/apache/ports.conf and change where it says "Listen 80" to say "Listen" + the desired port number, e.g. "Listen 8080"

How to Install Webmin

Webmin is an browser-based administration tool for Apache, PHP, MySQL, and Much More.

wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.370_all.deb

sudo apt-get install libnet-ssleay-perl libauthen-pam-perl libio-pty-perl libmd5-perl

sudo passwd root (Enter new root password, retype)

sudo dpkg -i webmin_1.370_all.deb

To use webmin, type the following in a browser: (Make sure to use HTTPS not HTTP)

   * https://localhost:10000 

Sun Java Application Server (Java EE)

Official documentation

Installing Application Server

Sun Java Application Server is the heart of Java EE. Download either of the following versions:

   * Java EE 5 SDK Update 3
   * Java Application Platform SDK Update 3 Beta
   * Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 (under individual download section) 

Alternately you can download GlassFish application server (community maintained):

   * With Netbeans Web & Java EE pack
   * Download GlassFish directly 

Make the download file executable and run as root by:

chmod +x Desktop/filename sudo ./Desktop/filename

Lets assume $JAVAEE_HOME indicates the installation directory. The default installation directory for Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 is /opt/SUNWappserver/. Now, either add $JAVAEE_HOME/bin in your PATH or make a link of asadmin and asant in your path by

sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asadmin /usr/local/bin/asadmin sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asant /usr/local/bin/ant

The command 'asadmin' is the main and most important command for Java Application server. Ant is also useful to automate building process.

Application Server configuration

When Java EE installs, a domain 'domain1' is automatically installed with it in $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ which is the default directory for all domains. Generally this directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) is not writable. So, as a unprivileged user you can create your own domain in your home directory.

Application Server domain settings

To create, start, stop and delete a domain in your home directory:

asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin start-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin stop-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain asadmin delete-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain

Alternately you can make $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ writable to do domain-related works from default domain directory. E.g.

sudo chmod a+w $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 mydomain asadmin start-domain mydomain asadmin stop-domain mydomain asadmin delete-domain mydomain

If you have only one domain in the default domains directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) then you do not have to give the domain name to start or stop a domain. E.g.

asadmin start-domain asadmin stop-domain

You can save the login information to ~/.asadminpass file in order to administer an application server domain from command line. If you do not login, you have to provide username and password for each administrative work (analogous to su and sudo commands). To login:

asadmin login --host localhost --port 4848

Deploying and un-deploying a web or ejb module is very easy. Just do the following:

asadmin deploy test1.war asadmin deploy test2.ear

asadmin undeploy test1.war asadmin undeploy test2.ear

Application Server data Source settings

DataSource configuration can be done easily from web based administration console. Here command line method is given:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar /opt/SUNWappserver/domains/domain1/lib/postgresql.jar asadmin create-jdbc-connection-pool --datasourceclassname org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource --property

   serverName=localhost:portNumber=5432:databaseName=database:user=user:password=pass jdbc/postgresql

asadmin create-jdbc-resource --connectionpoolid jdbc/postgresql database

First, we have made this driver accessible from the domain. In the second command, we have created a data source connection pool which has been assigned a JNDI name in the third command. Here all the colon (:) separated values are database related. Change them according to your database settings. Now you can create a Connection by, e.g.:

Context ic = new InitialContext(); DataSource ds = (DataSource)ic.lookup("database"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection();

To see available data sources and their corresponding JNDI names:

asadmin list-jdbc-connection-pools asadmin list-jdbc-resources

To delete both connection pool, you have to delete JNDI name first. E.g.

asadmin delete-jdbc-resource database asadmin delete-jdbc-connection-pool jdbc/postgresql

Tomcat 6

Installing tomcat

Tomcat can be found in universe repository but it has some drawbacks (e.g. lots of dependencies, unavailability of version 6.x, do not use Sun Java). Thus manual installation is recommended.

Download latest stable version of tomcat from here and extract it in /usr/local as root. Add "JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun/" to /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/setclasspath.sh after the first occurrence of "CLASSPATH=". Make sure that sun-java6-jre is installed. Make a soft-link of /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/catalina.sh as /usr/local/bin/tomcat to access easily. Optionally you can remove .exe and .bat files and edit .sh files to remove cygwin, os400 and darwin related codes.

Although not necessary, but the ant program would be useful here. You can also install its documentation.

OpenEJB Server

OpenEJB is an open source, modular, configurable, and extendable EJB Container System and EJB Server. Visit here to see the installation instructions for OpenEJB under Tomcat 6.

Using tomcat with NetBeans

You have to make the configuration files readable because Netbeans generally do not run with administrative privilege. To use Tomcat with with NetBeans, you have to set a user with manager role. A typcal $CATALINA_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml file would look like:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?> <tomcat-users>

 <role rolename="admin"/>
 <role rolename="manager"/>
 <role rolename="tomcat"/>
 <user username="admin" password="admin" roles="admin"/>
 <user username="manager" password="manager" roles="manager"/>
 <;user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat"/>

</tomcat-users>

Edit this file after you have started tomcat once. Any data placed in the <tomcat-users> element is erased during the first start of tomcat. You can also use tomcat that comes with NetBeans web & Java EE pack.

Configure Database Connection Pool (DBCP) of Tomcat

A database connection pool creates and manages a pool of connections to a database. Recycling and reusing already existing connections to a dB is more efficient than opening a new connection. It is still possible and valid to open and close connection for each servlet/jsp (visit #Using_JDBC_driver for details).

Before proceeding, let's assume that $CATALINA_HOME denotes tomcat installation directory (typically: /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.0.14).

echo $CATALINA_HOME sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar $CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar sudo mkdir $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest sudo chown $USER:$USER $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest cd $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest mkdir META-INF WEB-INF WEB-INF/classes

Create WEB-INF/web.xml and set its content:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd"
version="2.5">
<resource-ref>
  <description>PostgreSQL connectivity</description>
  <res-ref-name>jdbc/postgresql</res-ref-name>
  <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type>
  <res-auth>Container</res-auth>
</resource-ref>
<description>
  Page for testing
</description>
<display-name>Testing page</display-name>
<servlet>
  <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name>
  <servlet-class>pgsqlVersion</servlet-class>
</servlet>
<servlet-mapping>
  <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name>
  <url-pattern>/pgsqlVersion</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>

</web-app>

Create META-INF/context.xml and set its content (replace hostname, database instance name, user id and password):

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <Context>

<Resource
  name="jdbc/postgresql"
  auth="Container"
  type="javax.sql.DataSource"
  driverClassName="org.postgresql.Driver"
  url="jdbc:postgresql://host/database"
  username="user"
  password="password"
  maxActive="20"
  maxIdle="10"
  maxWait="-1"/>
<WatchedResource>WEB-INF/web.xml</WatchedResource>
<WatchedResource>META-INF/context.xml</WatchedResource>

</Context>

Create pgsqlVersion.java and set its content:

import java.io.*; import java.sql.*; import javax.sql.*; import javax.naming.*; import javax.servlet.*; public class pgsqlVersion extends GenericServlet {

public void service(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response) {
 try {
 response.setContentType("text/html");
 PrintWriter pw=response.getWriter();
 Context initContext = new InitialContext();
 Context envContext  = (Context)initContext.lookup("java:/comp/env");
 DataSource ds = (DataSource)envContext.lookup("jdbc/postgresql");
 Connection conn = ds.getConnection();
 Statement stat=conn.createStatement();
 ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()");
 rs.next();
 pw.println(rs.getString("version"));
 rs.close();
 stat.close();
 } catch(Exception e) { }
}

}

Create index.html and set its content:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"

  "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">

<html> <head> <title>PostgreSQL datasource</title> </head> <frameset rows="80%, 20%">

 <frame src="pgsqlVersion.java">
 <frame src="pgsqlVersion">

</frameset> </html>

Then compile the servlet:

export CLASSPATH=$CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar:$CATALINA_HOME/lib/servlet-api.jar:. javac -d WEB-INF/classes/ pgsqlVersion.java

Finally, visit http: //host:8080/dataSourceTest. Thats all!


Nagios Network Monitoring Server

   * Nagios Monitoring Server Setup Guide 

It should be noted that this howto instructs you to build nagios from its sources, while it exists on the official repositories.

NFS Server

   * Read Linux NFS FAQ
   * Run this command for each computer to determine the IP Addresses for each one: 

ifconfig

Installing NFS Server

sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server nfs-common portmap

Reconfigure Portmap to not bind to loopback interface:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure portmap sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart

Define which folders to share (export):

sudo nano /etc/exports

Add share (export) definitions:

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read/Write access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(rw,no_root_squash,async)

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read Only access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(ro,async)

192.168.1.0/24 above would be the clients IP Address

When finished, save changes and restart the NFS Server:

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server restart

Export your new configuration:

sudo exportfs -a

Installing NFS Client

sudo apt-get install portmap nfs-common

Mounting Manually

cd ~ mkdir temp sudo mount 192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files temp

192.168.1.1 above would be the Servers IP Address

You may need to restart NFS services:

sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-common restart

Mounting Automatically

Create mountpoint:

sudo mkdir /mnt/files

Edit configuration:

gksudo gedit /etc/fstab

Add something similar to below:

192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files /mnt/files nfs rsize=8192,wsize=8192,timeo=14,intr 0 0

Test new configuration:

sudo mount -a

Reboot to test automatic mounting.

Hardware

NVidia Driver

First, determine what kernel you have running:

user@localhost:~$ uname -a Linux localhost 2.6.22-14-generic #1 SMP Sun Oct 14 23:05:12 GMT 2007 i686 GNU/Linux

I have the generic kernel, so I need to install the following:

sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic


After that's done, go to System > Administration > Restricted Drivers Manager and turn on the driver.

Some users may receive an error screen: "The software source for the packsge nvidia-glx-new is not enabled." This can be overcome by going to System > Administration > Software Sources and ticking all the boxes under the heading "Downloadable from the Internet", click close and then allow Ubuntu to reload the package lists. The NVidia drivers can then be enabled using the method above.

You can optionally prevent showing NVidia logo on startup by:

sudo nvidia-xconfig --no-logo

Wacom tablet

By default, options for the Wacom tablet are commented out. Type the following command to edit the xorg.conf file.

gksu gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Uncomment the following by removing the "#" or just replace the tree lines:

InputDevice "stylus" "SendCoreEvents" InputDevice "cursor" "SendCoreEvents" InputDevice "eraser" "SendCoreEvents"

Save and restart your X-session by typing CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE.

Microsoft Intellimouse

To get the scroll wheel and side buttons to be recognized, change your /etc/X11/xorg.conf mouse section to look like the following:

Section "InputDevice"

  Identifier     "Configured Mouse"
  Driver         "mouse"
  Option         "CorePointer"
  Option         "Device" "/dev/input/mice" 
  Option         "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
  Option         "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
  Option         "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
  Option         "Buttons" "7" 
  Option         "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"

EndSection

If you want the wheel scroll button to scroll in firefox rather than the side buttons make "ZAxisMapping" "6 7" and "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 4 5".

At this point you can reboot your computer or restart X (Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) to see if your forward/back buttons work in FireFox. You can test in a terminal with xev.

Logitech MX510

To have the extra buttons on your MX510 working with X, you'll have to install and configure the evdev-drivers. Open up a terminal and enter:

sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-evdev

Now, all you have to do is configure Xorg to work with the new driver. Always remember to back up original files before altering:

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Locate and replace the InputDevice section which holds the information for your mouse, for example with the identifier Configured Mouse, and replace it with:

Section "InputDevice"
       Identifier      "Configured Mouse"
       Driver          "evdev"
       Option          "CorePointer"
       Option          "Name"  "Logitech MX510"
EndSection

Logout or kill the X session using <CTRL><ALT><BACKSPACE> and login again. This should get all of your buttons and scrollwheel up and running, and even let you navigate the webbrowser history using the thumb buttons on the side.

Disable CAPS LOCK

I like to remap mine to <Ctrl>. Just run gnome-keyboard-properties with "System > Preferences > Keyboard", click on the "Layout Options" tab and then on the arrow next to "Ctrl key position". Selecting "Make CapsLock an additional Ctrl" does the trick.

Enabling NUM LOCK at boot

The Default behavior is for the NUM LOCK key to be off; if you are on a desktop and have a keypad though, entering digits from it can be much quicker and you may wish to have it enabled for entering login password, etc. Here's how:

   * From Synaptic, download and install "numlockx," or, from the command line; 
 sudo apt-get install numlockx
   * To get it working, you now have to edit the appropriate startup file. First, make sure you have a working backup of the file: 
 sudo cp /etc/gdm/Init/Default /etc/gdm/Init/Default.bak
   * Next, modify the gdm/Init file. In terminal: 
 gksudo gedit /etc/gdm/Init/Default
   * Scroll down to the end of the file, and above the line that says "exit 0" add the following: 
 if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on 
 fi
   * Next time you reboot, your NUM LOCK should default to "on." 

BSNL Broadband (dataone) speedup

BSNL Broadband or Dataone provides high speed (2Mbps) Internet connectivity in India. The DNS servers provided by the BSNL (61.1.96.69 and 61.1.96.71) are very slow. Instead use Either of these:

208.67.222.222 and 208.67.220.220 or

4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2 or

search Google for free DNS service providers.

Citrix ICA client

The Citrix client no longer suffers from any of the previous Ubuntu version's problems of UTF8 font issues, OpenMotif depends, or flaky/broken browser integration. It just works!

   * Download the latest en.linuxx86.tar.gz (currently v10.6) from Citrix.com and save to your desktop
   * Right-click tar.gz file, and Extract Here
   * Open a Terminal 
Programs > Accessories > Terminal
   * Change to the directory where we extracted the client 
cd Desktop/en.linuxx86
   * Run the setup program 
./setupwfc
   * Select the defaults 

Now, web files from Metaframe Presentation Server, Citrix Access Gateway, etc webpages will work fine in Firefox.

Someone may wish to add an entry on how to use the client to connect to a local Citrix farm.

WINE

Новейшие инструкции по установке вы всегда сможете найти на сайте WineHQ.org, а конкретно тут: http://winehq.org/site/download-deb

Добавьте gpg ключ репозитария:

wget -q http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/387EE263.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

Добавьте репозитарий в источники apt

sudo wget http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/winehq.list

Обновите список приложений:

sudo apt-get update

Установите WINE:

sudo apt-get install wine

Для настройки Wine используйте команду winecfg

Если после применения этой команды вы увидите не русские буквы, а точки, то вы можете:

  • Запустить настройку Wine с английским интерфейсом:
LANG=C  winecfg
  • Скопировать ttf-шрифты (можно только tahoma.ttf) из папки Windows/Fonts в папку ~/.wine/drive_c/windows/fonts

После этого вы можете запускать windows программы с помощью команды

wine program.exe

Аналог главного меню находится в Приложения/Wine


Установка Internet Explorer 6 для Wine


Кроме описанного ниже способа вы можете воспользоваться Wine-Doors (рекомендуется).

Не рекомендуется использовать в Ubuntu IE 6 как браузер, но некоторые программы, запускаемые с помощью wine, требуют IE6 для установки. Кроме того, IEs4Linux может использоваться для того, чтобы увидеть, как будет выглядеть ваша веб-страница в IE6.

Установите пакет cabextract из менеджера пакетов Synaptic или используйте эту команду:

sudo apt-get install cabextract

Скачайте и запустите скрипт установки IEs4Linux с сайта программы:

 wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
 tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
 cd ies4linux-*
 ./ies4linux

Это загрузит самую новую версию скрипта установки с http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads

При нажатии кнопки "Advanced" вы сможете установить IE7. Эта опция тестируется и может (скорее всего) не работать.

Желательно не менять опции при установке.

Wine-Doors

Wine-Doors http://www.wine-doors.org/ - это программа, которая позволяет загружать из интернета Win-программы для работы в Wine. Сейчас в списке предлагаемых программ есть Internet Explorer 6.

VMWare Server

Until the Commercial Ubuntu repository includes the VMWare Server, you can use the following 'How To' to compile from source.

  • Step By Step Vmware server setup guide including Screenshots

VMWare Tools

If you want to install VMware tools on ubuntu gutsy follow this steps

  • VMWare Tools Setup Guide Incliding Screenshots

To be able to use usb devices look at following bug comment at https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/kvm/+bug/156085/comments/5

How to install Broadcom wireless driver

  • This worked for me Kubuntu 7.10 32 bit but there are several ways
  • First, make sure you have the appropriate hardware
lspci | grep Broadcom
  • Output should match this
02:03.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 02)
  • Then you have to add a repository
gksu gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add
deb http://ubuntu.cafuego.net gutsy-cafuego bcm43xx
  • Then do this to add the signature
wget http://ubuntu.cafuego.net/AF425CB5.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Back in the console
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install bcm43xx-firmware 
  • Just press yes, let it install, and reboot! Thanks to Pete and the 7.04 guide for this.

Requests

If you have requests that you would like to be part of this guide, write them in Ubuntu_talk:Gutsy.

Troubleshooting

Place solutions to problems you have encountered with Gutsy here. They may be workarounds to bugs or other solutions to other problems.

OpenOffice spell checking problem

This problem is not a bug at all. Some Languages do not have spell checking support while others do. For example, "English (India)" do not support spell checking but "English (USA)" do. Just goto

Tools -> Options -> Language Settings -> Languages

and select a Western language that have a check mark beside the language name. Thats it.

If you want to add languages that supports spell checking, just install the package myspell-<language> where <language> is the desired language i.e:

sudo apt-get install myspell-fr 

to install the french dictionnary.

Alternative of SCIM to switch keyboard layout

SCIM might not work properly under Gutsy Gibbon, although works fine under Feisty Fawn. Until the problem is fixed, you can use the alternative method to switch keyboard layout.

  • Go to System -> Administration -> Language Support and install the languages you want to use.
  • Open System -> Preferences -> Keyboard and add the layout that you want to use from Layouts tab.
  • Right click on the free space of upper panel and select "Add to panel...". Add Keyboard Indicator.

Fix Slow boot/faulty splash screen

if your system is booting slowly or your ubuntu splash screen is not being displayed it could be that Usplash has created the splash screen incorrectly

1) edit /boot/grub/menu.lst

sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

At the very end of the kernel line after "splash" , add "vga=***" replace *** with the code from the table below that corresponds with the resolution and colour setting you are using

Screen 640x480 800x600 1024x768 1280x1024 1600x1200
Colors
256 769 771 773 775 796
32,768 784 787 790 793 797
65,536 785 788 791 794 798
16.8M 786 789 792 795 799

the line should look something like this

kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.22-14-generic root=UUID=20fd9912-6383-4860-9cd8-88a11909d715 ro quiet splash vga=791

Save that file, close it,

2) edit /etc/usplash.conf

sudo gedit /etc/usplash.conf

change the resolution to the one you set in the previous step save and close

3) rebuild the bootsplash screen

get your kernel version

uname -r

This lists your current kernel version.

sudo update-initramfs -u -k <insert results from uname -r here>

This rebuilds the image that Grub uses to start the system.

4) reboot

Logout problem

Some users have have faced a hangout problem when whey press the quit button. Currently the following symptom and work-around have been noticed:

  • Press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to kill X-Window and show the GDM screen.
  • gnome-power-manager service should be on. You can enable it from System->Preferences->Sessions.
  • Wait for 1 minute. The quit window will appear. (the logout problem will vanish for some times).
  • For some users, removing .config/autostart/ directory worked.

Tips And Tricks

It is pointless to add the tricks that is already added in Ubuntu:Feisty#Tips_And_Tricks. So, only new tricks are added.

What to do when Ubuntu freezes

There are different reasons for a computer to crash - there can be a programming bug, a memory issue, or other. When your computer seems to be dead, don't panic! And don't reach for that power button! There are five simple things you can try before killing the power:

  1. Is the computer frozen? Try going into one of the VTs by pressing <Ctrl><Alt> and F1. This way you may still have control of the computer and manage to kill the application which caused the problem. More on killing applications later.
  2. If you can't change into a VT, try to kill the X session. This can be done by pressing <Ctrl><Alt><Backspace>. All applications that were opened during the session will automatically be killed, so you should gain control over the computer after you've been sent back to the login screen.
  3. . OK, so you can't kill X or go into VT. Let's do a reboot, which can safely be done by pressing <Ctrl><Alt><Delete>. The machine will beep and start running the shutdown scripts.
  4. . If for some reason one or more of the shutdown scripts should die, and the computer stops the rebooting process, press the key combination again to force a reboot. This not safe if the scripts haven't gotten around to unmount the local filesystems.
  5. Final way out: Your computer doesn't obey and none of above methods seem to give any response. Here's a little trick that might help, not known to many Linux users! The kernel has a small userspace communication line opened, so even if the computer has crashed badly (I haven't tried this during kernel-panic, though, can anyone confirm?) you can make it reboot safely. This method is safe, but should be used only if everything else fails! Hold down <Ctrl>, <Alt> and <PrtScrn/SysRq>. While holding down these, type the following letters - in order - R E I S U B. The computer will unmount any filesystems that are locally mounted, and safely bring down the system. If you have trouble remembering the letter combination; think busier, only backwards.

How to find the UUID of a device

  • This is useful if changes are made to the partition table or a new hard drive is added to the computer.
  • When the UUID(s) change an error will be caused during boot.
  • Pressing <Ctrl>-D will allow the boot to continue but to fix the problem:

-> Open fstab file:

sudo gedit /etc/fstab

-> In another terminal run this commmand:

ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/

-> Or you can type this to list all of your devices:

blkid

  • Compare the UUID's and any that are different in fstab from the list must be changed. The easiest way is copy and paste.
  • Some other things may have to be edited as well like the mount point, type (ext2, ext3, ntfs, etc) , options, dump, pass, etc.

For more help editing fstab look Here:

  • To list the UUID of a specific device:
sudo vol_id -u device
  • Where device might be /dev/sdxy.

Example: sudo vol_id -u /dev/sda1

Enable vim syntax highlighting

The source of vi/vim command is vim-tiny package which does not support syntax highlighting. Install vim:

sudo apt-get install vim

Then open /etc/vim/vimrc and uncomment syntax on

Looks like

"syntax

Needs to look like

syntax

HAL

If you have problem failed to initialize HAL, and devices such as card reader,or shutdown problem, power meter doesn´t appear..please find this line in /etc/init.d/rc

sudo vim /etc/init.d/rc find this line : CONCURRENCY=shell

To fix this:

sudo nautilus

Navigate to /etc/ look for the folder rc2.d rename s12hal to s13hal

the problem was HAL loading before DBUS and causing such error. this should fiz the problem, if not

sudo gedit /etc/init.d/rc

and turn CONCURRENCY=shell to CONCURRENCY=none

Enable Sirius Internet Radio for Firefox

  • Install VLC
  • Install the firefox media player connectivity plugin

Launch the player from www.sirius.com. After authenticating, you will now be able to select which stream to play. Selecting the stream will launch vlc.

Remove unwanted language/locale files

sudo apt-get install localepurge
sudo localepurge


Auto starting pidgin at login

Goto System -> Preferences -> Sessions. Click Add. A popup window will appear. Set Name to "Pidgin" and Command to "/usr/bin/pidgin". Click OK. Make sure that it is enabled.

sudo/gksu without password

EDITOR=gedit gksu visudo

Find "Defaults !lecture,tty_tickets,!fqdn" and replace by "Defaults timestamp_timeout=-1".

Speed-up Ubuntu

Open System -> Preferences -> Sessions and remove the startup programs that you do not need (e.g. Bluetooth Manager, Evolution Alarm Notifier, Restricted Driver Manager, Tracker, User folders update, Visual).

Open System -> Preferences -> Appearance and make Visual Effects to None.

Open System -> Administration -> Services and disable the services that you do not need (e.g. alsa-utils, bluetooth, brltty, hdparm, acpid, apmd, screen).

How to change the USplash Screen on startup/shutdown

When you add another Desktop Environment, the USplash screen may change (saying Kubuntu instead of Ubuntu). If you want to change it, do the following:

sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so

This will bring up a list of installed USplash screens. Type the number that corresponds to the one you want and press Enter. Then type:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure usplash

Then reboot.

How to boot Ubuntu from ISO image on hard drive or USB stick

Copy ISO image to any partition or flash drive which you have. Add to kernel parameters:

find_iso=/path/to/image/ubuntu-live-cd.iso boot=casper

In the GRUB menu: press 'e', then point to kernel string, then again press 'e'. After edition press 'Enter', then 'b'.

If you boot from CD/DVD press 'F6'.

Guide Development

Note: This section was taken from the Feisty Guide and edited appropriately.

Place ideas here to increase the look and performance of this guide.

  • Add a new section for Gnome Themes from http://art.gnome.org and KDE Themes from http://www.kde-look.org/.
  • Have entries under their headings in alphabetical order.
  • Try to keep the guide neat and clutter free.
  • Possible "Short Version" Table of contents without each "How to".
  • Add a [top] link to the end of each article.
  • If possible, include a 'find/search' function to easily access queries.
    • This can be done in Firefox with <Ctrl>-F.
  • instead of 'apt-get install', there could be the new Gutsy apturl feature for easier installation of software