Ubuntu dapper ru

From

Image:Ubuntuguide_logo.png

Неофициальное руководство начинающего пользователя Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake)


Предыдущая версия: Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger)




Переводы: Английский Польский Бразильский Португальский Турецкий

Переводятся: Немецкий Испанский


Contents


Общие замечания

  1. Это неофициальное руководство для начинающий пользователей Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake). Оно никоем образом не связано с Ubuntu и Canonical Ltd.
  2. Это руководство может быть обсуждено на официальном UbuntuGuide.org форуме на ubuntuforums.org. Присоединяйтесь к обсуждению.
  3. Руководство проверено на полной установке Ubuntu 6.06 x86 Install CD (Dapper Drake).
  4. Текст, написанный в голубой рамке - это команды для исполнения в терминальном режиме (Applications → System Tools → Terminal), а иногда, если указано, для других целей.
  5. Для уменьшения вероятности опечатки, скопируйте и вставьте команды в Терминал (правой кнопкой мыши → "Скопировать" или "Вставить". Также для копирования можно использовать Ctrl+C/Ctrl+Ins и Ctrl+V/Shift+Ins для вставки).
  6. "sudo" означает исполнение суперпользователем. "sudo" запросит пароль. Пожалуйста введите пароль пользователя.
  7. Если вы захотите узнать больше о команде, просто посмотрите страницу документации командой "man". Например, "man sudo" покажет вам страницу документации по команде "man".
  8. Если вам надоело каждый раз печатать "apt-get", прочитайте #How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic).
  9. Чтобы загрузить файл, нажмите правой кнопкой мышки на ссылке -> выберите "Save Link As..." -> убедитесь в правильности имени и расширения файла.
  10. Если Вы хотите помочь в переводе Ubuntu на ваш родной язык или еще каким-либо способом, посетите https://launchpad.net/
  11. Да пребудет с вами вечно дух "человечности к другим"...


Если вы используете Kubuntu, вам прийдется установить Gedit
sudo apt-get install gedit
Или заменить 'gedit' на 'kwrite', например, вместо написания
 sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
пишите
 sudo kwrite /etc/apt/sources.list
Если вы используете 64-битную версию, замените "i386" на "amd64"

Введение

Что такое Ubuntu?

  • http://www.ubuntu.com/ubuntu

Что нового в Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake?

  • http://www.ubuntu.com/testing/dapperbeta

Где можно посмотреть снимки экранов Ubuntu?

  • http://shots.osdir.com/slideshows/slideshow.php?release=659&slide=4&title=ubuntu+6.06+screenshots
  • http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=481&num=1
Видео
  • http://osvids.com/index.html

Где можно посмотреть список программ/библиотек идущих с Ubuntu?

  • Результат dpkg -l: здесь
  • http://packages.ubuntu.com/dapper
  • http://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=ubuntu

Где можно скачать Ubuntu?

  • http://releases.ubuntu.com/6.06/

Где можно абсолютно бесплатно заказать диски с Ubuntu?

  • http://shipit.ubuntu.com

Где искать помощь?

  • System -> Help -> System Documentation
  • На русском языке:
    • Форум русскоязычного сообщества Ubuntu
    • Wiki русскоязычного сообщества Ubuntu
    • Канал IRC
  • На английском языке:
    • Сайт официальной документации
    • Официальная документация пользователя (wiki)
    • Ubuntu Document Storage Facility
    • Списки рассылки
    • Форумы
    • Канал IRC


Где искать новые программы?

  • http://gnomefiles.org/
  • http://www.kde-apps.org/
  • http://freshmeat.net
  • http://sourceforge.net/

Где искать элементы оформления рабочего стола?

  • http://gnome-look.org/
  • http://www.kde-look.org/
  • http://art.gnome.org/

Репозитарии

Как подключить дополнительные репозитарии?

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Замените всё следующими строками
## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.   
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.  
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted universe multiverse
## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted universe multiverse
## UBUNTU SECURITY UPDATES
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted universe multiverse
## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf dapper free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf dapper free non-free 
  • Сохраните редактируемый файл
sudo apt-get update
  • Вы также можете сгенерировать свой собственный sources.list и найти другие репозитарии на: http://www.ubuntulinux.nl/source-o-matic
  • Используйте ваш собственный sources.list только если вы понимаете, что вы делаете!

Обновление Ubuntu

Как вручную обновить Ubuntu?

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

Установка приложений


Как установить Демон буфера обмена для GNOME?

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2 -C /usr/bin/
sudo chown root:root /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo gnome-clipboard-daemon &
export EDITOR=gedit && crontab -e
  • Добавьте следующую строку в конец файла
@reboot gnome-clipboard-daemon
  • Сохраните редактируемый файл

Как установить J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) и плагин для Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin
echo 3 | sudo update-alternatives --config java
  • При запросе согласитель с положениями лицензии DLJ

Как установить Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in для Mozilla Firefox?

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree
sudo update-flashplugin
  • Перезапустите Mozilla Firefox

Как установить PDF Reader (Adobe Reader) и Plug-in для Mozilla Firefox?

sudo apt-get install acroread
sudo apt-get install mozilla-acroread
sudo apt-get install acroread-plugins

Как установить менеджер закачек (Downloader for X)?

sudo apt-get install d4x

Как установить клиент FTP (gFTP)?

sudo apt-get install gftp

Как установить программу предоставления доступа к файлам (DC++)?

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/linuxdcpp.tar.gz 
sudo tar zxvf linuxdcpp.tar.gz -C /opt
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dcpp.desktop
  • Добавьте следующие строки в новый файл
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=DC++
Exec=/opt/linuxdcpp/ldcpp
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Icon=/opt/linuxdcpp/pixmaps/linuxdcpp.svg
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Сохраните редактируемый файл
  • Applications -> Internet -> DC++

Как установить P2P-клиент сети BitTorrent (Azureus)?

wget -c http://kent.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/azureus/Azureus_2.4.0.2_linux.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf Azureus_2.4.0.2_linux.tar.bz2 -C /opt
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/azureus.desktop 
  • Добавьте следующие строки в новый файл
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Azureus
Comment=A Bittorrent client
Exec=/opt/azureus/azureus
Icon=/opt/azureus/Azureus.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Сохраните редактируемый файл
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus

Как установить P2P-клиент eMule (aMule)?

sudo apt-get install amule

Как установить P2P-клиент сети Gnutella (FrostWire)?

wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
sudo dpkg -i FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
  • Applications -> Internet -> FrostWire

Как установить программу для обмена сообщениями (Skype)?

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Добавьте следующие строки в конец файла
## Repository for Skype
deb http://download.skype.com/linux/repos/debian/ stable non-free
  • Сохраните редактируемый файл
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install skype
  • Applications -> Internet -> Skype

Как установить WinPopup (LinPopUp)?

sudo apt-get install linpopup
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  • Добавьте следующие строки в новый файл
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;

Как установить кодеки мультимедиа?

Stubby Все известные кодеки работают кроме wmv

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-gl
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-base
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-good
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse

How to install DVD playback capability

ironss: gstreamer dvd plugin is available as part of plugins-bad (or ugly?) and does not work reliably. However, Totem works with the xine backend to play back DVDs. This will keep you going until gstreamer gets dvd playback. Note that you do not have to install xine-ui or mplayer as suggested in

sudo apt-get install libdvdread3 
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/examples/install-css.sh
sudo apt-get install totem-xine

Stubby: gstreamer dvd plugin not ported to dapper yet. following instructions will not work properly

sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

How to install Multimedia Player (xine-ui)

sudo apt-get install xine-ui
  • Associate xine-ui to play multimedia files
gconftool-2 --type string --set /desktop/gnome/volume_manager/autoplay_dvd_command "xine dvd://"
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applnk/Multimedia/xine.desktop
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/xine/desktop/xine.desktop /usr/share/applications/
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo sed -e 's/totem.desktop/xine.desktop/g' /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list

How to install VLC Multimedia player

sudo apt-get install vlc vlc-plugin-*
Applications -> Sound and Video -> VLC Media Player

How to install Multimedia Player (Totem) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to install Multimedia Player (XMMS)

sudo apt-get install xmms
sudo apt-get install xmms-skins
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
  • Associate XMMS to play MP3/M3U/WAV files
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /tmp/defaults.list_tmp
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/mpeg=.*/audio\/mpeg=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.list_tmp > /tmp/defaults.mp3
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-mpegurl=.*/audio\/x-mpegurl=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.mp3 > /tmp/defaults.m3u
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-wav=.*/audio\/x-wav=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.m3u > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list
sudo rm -f /tmp/defaults.*

Как установить мультимедиа плеер (amaroK)

sudo apt-get install amarok
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK

How to install Multimedia Player (RealPlayer 10)

sudo apt-get install realplay
Note: 'realplay' installs RealPlayer 10 from PLF repo. 'realplayer' installs RealPlayer 8 from multiverse.

How to install Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)

sudo apt-get install streamtuner
sudo apt-get install streamripper

How to install Music Organizer (Cowbell)

sudo apt-get install cowbell
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Cowbell Music Organizer

How to install ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)

sudo apt-get install easytag

How to install Video Editor (Kino)

sudo apt-get install kino
sudo apt-get install kinoplus
sudo apt-get install kino-timfx
sudo apt-get install kino-dvtitler

How to install Audio Editor (Audacity)

sudo apt-get install audacity

How to install DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)

sudo apt-get install dvdrip
sudo apt-get install vcdimager
sudo apt-get install cdrdao
sudo apt-get install subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip 
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

How to install CD Ripper (Goobox)

sudo apt-get install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

How to install Image Viewer (digiKam)

sudo apt-get install digikam
  • Applications -> Graphics -> digikam

How to install Email Client (Mozilla Thunderbird)

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird

How to install Newsreader (Pan)

wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/pan_0.99_i386.deb
sudo apt-get install libgmime2.1
sudo dpkg -i pan_0.99_i386.deb

How to install RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
sudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
./run.sh
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> RSSOwl

How to install Web Authoring System (Nvu)

sudo apt-get install nvu
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nvu
Comment=Web Development Editor
Exec=nvu
Icon=nvu.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

How to install Web Development Environment (quanta plus)

sudo apt-get install quanta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Quanta Plus

How to install Project Management Application (Planner)

sudo apt-get install planner

How to install Accounting Application (GnuCash)

sudo apt-get install gnucash
sudo rm -fr /usr/share/gnome/apps/Applications/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/GnuCash.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=GnuCash
Comment=GnuCash Personal Finance
Exec=gnucash
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/gnucash/gnucash-icon.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Office;

How to install Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)

sudo apt-get install scribus

How to install Diagram Editor (Dia)

sudo apt-get install dia-gnome

How to install Compiled HTML Help (CHM) Viewer (xCHM)

sudo apt-get install xchm

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)

sudo apt-get install gnomebaker

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (K3b)

sudo apt-get install k3b k3b-mp3
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> K3b

How to install Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)

sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp

How to install Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/go-gui
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)

sudo apt-get install bum

How to install Partition Editor (GParted)

sudo apt-get install gparted

How to install Firewall (Firestarter)

sudo apt-get install firestarter

How to install network traffic analyzer (Ethereal)

sudo apt-get install ethereal
  • Applications -> Internet -> Ethereal

How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)

sudo apt-get install nessus
sudo apt-get install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

How to install RAR Archiver (rar)

sudo apt-get install rar
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/unrar
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

How to install Extra Fonts

sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-european
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo apt-get install gsfonts-x11
sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v
Note: Ubuntu Dapper comes with the DejaVu fonts (derived from Bitstream Vera) and provides adequate support for Latin, Greek and Cyrillic based languages.

How to install Chinese Input Method (SCIM)

The following advices are outdated and it could be hard to revert to normal afterwards. Please follow instead the official Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake guide at https://wiki.ubuntu.com/InputMethods/SCIM/CJK_Chinese_Japanese_Korean_Input_Method_configuration_using_SCIM_in_Ubuntu_6%2e06_Dapper_Drake

Please note that scim is now installed by default in Dapper, and installing Chinese, Japanese or Korean Support is done using System>Administration>Language Support. The wiki details the method more thoroughly

sudo apt-get install scim
sudo apt-get install scim-chinese
sudo apt-get install scim-config-socket
sudo apt-get install scim-gtk2-immodule
sudo apt-get install scim-tables-zh
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz -C /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/fonts/truetype/fireflysung-1.3.0/ 
sudo fc-cache -f -v
  • System -> Preferences -> SCIM Input Method Setup
  • To activate SCIM
Press 'Ctrl + Space'

How to install Desktop Applets (gDesklets)

sudo apt-get install gdesklets
sudo apt-get install gdesklets-data

How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)

sudo apt-get install build-essential

How to install Integrated Development Environment (Anjuta)

sudo apt-get install anjuta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Anjuta IDE

How to install 3D modeling tool (Blender 3d)

sudo apt-get install blender
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Blender 3D modeller

How to install game Tuxracer

sudo apt-get install planetpenguin-racer planetpenguin-racer-data planetpenguin-racer-extras
  • Applications -> Games -> planetpenguin-racer

How to install game Frozen-Bubble

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
  • Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

How to install game Scorched3D

sudo apt-get install scorched3d
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/scorched3d.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Scorched 3D
Comment=A 3D Remake Of Scorched Earth
Exec=scorched3d
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Game;ArcadeGame;

How to install virtual planetarium (Stellarium)

sudo apt-get install stellarium
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/stellarium.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Stellarium
Comment=Virtual planetarium
Exec=stellarium
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Education;
  • Applications -> Education -> Stellarium

How to install KDE Edutainment applications

sudo apt-get install kdeedu
  • Applications -> Education -> ...

How to install Wine

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of this file
# Repository for wine
deb http://wine.sourceforge.net/apt binary/
deb-src http://wine.sourceforge.net/apt source/
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install wine
  • For more info see http://www.winehq.com/

Другие Рабочие Среды

Как установить KDE

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop
Заметка: Для инсталяции нужно ~400Мб свободного места
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • Чтобы войти в KDE нажмите на Sessions и выбирите KDE

Как установить XFCE

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • Чтобы войти в XFCE нажмите на Sessions и выбирите XFCE

Eye Candy

Как установить Xgl/Compiz (Nvidia)

  • Для полной информации как установить XGL на разных картах и некоторые хитрости смотрите: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=148351



sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Найдите эту секцию
Section "Module"
	Load	"i2c"
	Load	"bitmap"
	...
	Load	"type1"
	Load	"vbe"
EndSection
  • Закомментируйте dri и GLcore (если присутствуют)
#	Load	"dri"
#	Load	"GLcore"
  • Убедитесь что glx модуль загружаеться
	Load	"glx"
  • Найдите эту секцию (у вас может отличаться)
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Driver		"nv"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection
  • Замените следующими строчками,оставив Identifier и BusID без изменений
Section "Device"
	...
	Driver		"nvidia"
	...
	Option		"RenderAccel"		"true"
	Option		"AllowGLXWithComposite" "true"
EndSection
  • Найдите эту секцию
Section "Screen"
	Identifier	"Default Screen"
	Device		"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Monitor		"Generic Monitor"
	DefaultDepth	16
  • Убедитесь что DefaultDepth установлен в 24
	DefaultDepth	24
  • Сохраните файл
  • Установите Xgl/Compiz
sudo apt-get install compiz xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 compiz-gnome
sudo cp /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom-backup
sudo gedit /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom
  • Все замените на следующие строки
# GDM Configuration Customization file.
#
# This file is the appropriate place for specifying your customizations to the
# GDM configuration.   If you run gdmsetup, it will automatically edit this
# file for you and will cause the daemon and any running GDM GUI programs to
# automatically update with the new configuration.  Not all configuration
# options are supported by gdmsetup, so to modify some values it may be
# necessary to modify this file directly by hand.
# 
# To hand-edit this file, simply add or modify the key=value combination in
# the appropriate section in the template below.  Refer to the comments in the
# gdm.conf file for information about each option.  Also refer to the reference
# documentation.
# 
# If you hand edit a GDM configuration file, you should run the following
# command to get the GDM daemon to notice the change.  Any running GDM GUI
# programs will also be notified to update with the new configuration.
#
# gdmflexiserver --command="UPDATE_CONFIG <configuration key>"
#
# For example, the "Enable" key in the "[debug]" section would be specified by
# "debug/Enable".
#
# You can also run gdm-restart or gdm-safe-restart to cause GDM to restart and
# re-read the new configuration settings.  You can also restart GDM by sending
# a HUP or USR1 signal to the daemon.  HUP behaves like gdm-restart and causes
# any user session started by GDM to exit immediately while USR1 behaves like
# gdm-safe-restart and will wait until all users log out before restarting GDM.
# 
# For full reference documentation see the gnome help browser under
# GNOME|System category.  You can also find the docs in HTML form on
# http://www.gnome.org/projects/gdm/
# 
# NOTE: Lines that begin with "#" are considered comments.
# 
# Have fun!
[daemon]
[security]
[xdmcp]
[gui]
[greeter]
[chooser]
[debug]
[servers]# Override display 1 to use Xgl
0=Xgl 
[server-Xgl] 
name=Xgl server 
command=/usr/bin/Xgl :0 -fullscreen -ac -accel glx:pbuffer -accel xv:fbo 
flexible=true
  • Создайте скрипт который запускает Xgl/Compiz при загрузке
sudo gedit /usr/bin/thefuture
  • Вставьте следующие строки в новый файл. Замените .us в соответствии с настройками клавиатуры для района. Например .uk для Англии. Если не уверены, оставьте .us
#!/bin/bash
gnome-window-decorator &  compiz --replace gconf decoration wobbly fade minimize cube rotate zoom scale move resize place switcher &
xmodmap /usr/share/xmodmap/xmodmap.us
  • Сохраните файл
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/thefuture
  • Запустите compiz для текущей сессии
thefuture
  • Для запуска compiz при загрузке
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add
/usr/bin/thefuture
  • Проблемы
    • Если кажеться, что Xgl/Compiz не работает, или возникают ошибки, просто перезагрузите компьютер после добавления "thefuture" в автозагрузку
    • Если перемещение окон тормозит систему,запустите в терминале gconf-editor. Найдите apps/compiz/general/screen0/options. Отключите detect_refresh_rate и выставьте refresh rate в 60. Теперь все должно работать...
    • Если вы используете не стандартную раскладку клавиатуры (другой язык), вам ,возможно, придется опять изменить ее на ту, что вам нужна в System/Settings/Keyboard.
    • Там же вы можете установить Super-клавишу для кнопки окна.
  • Подсказки
    • Переключение окон = Alt + Tab
    • Упорядочивание и просмотр всех окон = F12 включает или выключает; клик на окно фокусирует его
    • Переключение рабочих столов на кубе = Ctrl + Alt + Стрелка Влево/Вправо
    • Переключение рабочих столов на кубе - с перемещением активного окна = Ctrl + Shift + Alt + Стрелка Влево/Вправо
    • Вращение куба = Ctrl + Alt + левый клик
    • Изменение прозрачности = сейчас возможно только с помощью утилиты "transset"
    • Приближение = Super-клавиша правый клик
    • Увеличение = Super-клавиша + колесо мыши вверх
    • Уменьшение = Super-клавиша + колесо мыши вниз
    • Двигать окно = Alt + левый клик
    • Прикрепление окна(цепляет к краю) = Ctrl + Alt + левый клик
    • Изменение размера окна = Alt + правый клик

Коммерческие приложения

Как установить Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)

  • http://www.win4lin.com

Как установить программы для Windows (CrossOver Office)

  • http://www.codeweavers.com

Как установить игры для Windows (Cedega)

  • http://www.transgaming.com

Администрирование пользователей

Как назначить/сменить/разрешить пароль пользователя root?

sudo passwd root

Как запретить учетную запись пользователя root?

sudo passwd -l root

Как разрешить пользователю root входить в сессию GNOME?

Security Tab -> Security -> Allow root to login with GDM (Checked)

Как в консоли переключиться на пользователя root?

sudo -s -H
Password: <specify user password>

Как добавлять/изменять/удалять пользователей системы?

Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete
или
sudo useradd jim
sudo userdel jim
  • Для большей информации смотрите
man usermod

Как добавлять/изменять/удалять группы пользователей системы?

Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

Как автоматически входить в сессию GNOME (небезопасно)?

General Tab -> Automatic Login ->
Login a user automatically on first bootup (Отметить)
Automatic login username: Выбрать "имя пользователя"


Как разрешить другим пользователям вашей системы использовать sudo?

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  • В конец файла добавьте следующую строку
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
  • Сохраните файл

Как использовать "sudo" без запроса пароля (небезопасно)?

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  • Найдите эту строку
...
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
...
  • Замените на следующую строку
system_username	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • Сохраните файл

Как гарантированно прервать "sudo"-сессию?

sudo -K

Как изменить права доступа к файлам/папкам?

Кликните правой кнопкой мыши на файлах/папках -> Properties
Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Отметьте права для Owner/Group/Others)

Как изменить владельца файлов/папок?

sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

Как изменить группу владельца файлов/папок?

sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders

Аппаратная часть

How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx nvidia-kernel-common


How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
...
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Add the following line below it
   Option		"NoLogo"

How to install Graphics Driver (ATI)

  • See Unofficial ATI Linux driver wiki
  • Or Ubuntuforums.org

How to identify Modem chipset

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

How to configure PalmOS Devices

sudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Save the edited file
  • System -> Preferences -> PalmOS Devices
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to list partition tables

sudo fdisk -l
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list filesystem disk space usage

df -T -h
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to list PCI devices

lspci

How to list USB devices

lsusb

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Save the edited file

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

sudo mount -a


How to install a Wacom tablet

For a detailed guide with screenshots about how to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications, please follow the official Dapper guide at https://wiki.ubuntu.com//Wacom

With the version of the Linux Wacom driver (0.7.2) in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake, if you unplug you tablet, it won't function when you plug it back in and you will have to restart X. For this reason, it is best to leave the tablet plugged in. This limitation will be removed when the 0.7.4 version of the driver is included in Ubuntu.

  • 1. Using Synaptic package manager1, check if the packages xserver-xorg-input-wacom and wacom-tools are already installed - if not, install them. If you prefer using the command line, you can also execute :
     sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-wacom wacom-tools
  • 2. Save a copy of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf :
      sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • then edit it with the command line :
      sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • and change all /dev/wacom occurences into /dev/input/wacom (created by wacom-tools udev scripts), then save the file.
  • You should be ready to go after you have restarted X. Remember to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications (Gimp, Inkscape), however you can already check if it's working by moving your stylus on the tablet : the mouse cursor should go through the whole screen.

Запись CD/DVD

How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to duplicate CD/DVD

How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

How to create Image (ISO) files from folders

mkisofs -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum files

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)

Сеть

How to configure Google Talk

  • See the answer at Google Talk Help Center

How to activate/deactivate network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

How to configure network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> Enable this connection (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

How to configure dialup connections

sudo pppconfig
  • To connect dialup
sudo pon provider_name
  • To disconnect dialup
sudo poff

How to configure broadband connections

sudo pppoeconf

How to change computer name

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name 
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to change computer descriptions

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...
  • Replace with the following line
  server string = new_computer_descriptions
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to change computer Domain/Workgroup

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  workgroup = MSHOME
...
  • Replace with the following line
  workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service

sudo apt-get install ipcheck
sudo gedit /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 #!/bin/sh
 USERNAME=myusername
 PASSWORD=mypassword
 HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org
 cd /root/
 if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
  ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 else
  ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 fi
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
sudo sh /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh

How to share folders the easy way

Right click on folder -> Share folder
Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

How to browse network computers

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
Read #How to access network folders without mounting
  • Places -> Network Servers

How to access network folders without mounting

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Shared folder's name: linux
  • Press 'Alt+F2' (Run Application...) and enter:
smb://192.168.0.1/linux

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword 
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials    0    0

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777  0    0

How to get ipw2200 and wpa to work

  • See Ubuntuforuns.org how-tos

How to Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)

  • Read #General Notes
  • Use these instructions to automatically install PPTP Client
OR
  • Install manually
wget -c http://linux.edu.lv/uploads/content/pptp.tar.gz
tar zxvf pptp.tar.gz
sudo sh ./pptp/install
  • To configure PPTP Client
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/pptpconfig.desktop
  • Replace content of this file with the following lines
[Desktop Entry]
Name=PPTP Client
Comment=Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)
Categories=Application;Network
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=gksudo pptpconfig
Icon=gnome-remote-desktop.png
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
Type=Application
  • The above lines change the default file in three ways: the application is placed in the Application/Internet category, gksudo will make the application run as superuser and we put a nice icon that appears in the menu.
  • Start the client with Applications -> Internet -> PPTP Client

How to configure Network-manager with WPA 1 and 2 support

Удалённый рабочий стол

How to configure remote desktop (not secure)

Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
Use (System -> Lock Screen) and switch off the monitor when computer is left unattended
  • System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  • Remote Desktop Preferences
Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  • To quit vncviewer
Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • Download VNC Viewer: Here

Windows

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only


e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows ntfs  nls=utf8,umask=0222 0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows vfat  iocharset=utf8,umask=000  0    0


Безопасность

What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu

  • Read #General Notes
  • Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
    • To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
  • Ensure a password is set for BIOS
    • To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
  • Ensure computer is located at a secured place
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
  • Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
    • To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
    • Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
    • Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
  • Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
  • Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
    • To prevent trespassers from restarting the system without permission in Console mode
    • Read [[#How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode]]
  • Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
  • For day to day usage, login as a normal user
  • Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    • To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    • "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    • Read #How to disable root user account
  • Install a Firewall
  • Perform vulnerability test

How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#   password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
# password topsecret
...
  • Add the following line below it
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Find this section
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root		(hd0,1)
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...
  • Replace with the following lines
#title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
#root		(hd0,1)
#kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
#initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
#savedefault
#boot
  • Save the edited file

How to disable history listing in Console mode

rm -f $HOME/.bash_history
touch $HOME/.bash_history
chmod 000 $HOME/.bash_history

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/inittab
  • Find this line
...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...
  • Replace with the following line
#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  • Save the edited file
sudo telinit q

How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'
  • Save the edited file

Режим восстановления

How to gain root user access without login

  • Read #General Notes
  • Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
    • Boot-up computer
    • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
    • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)

How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer
  • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
  • If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
  • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386
  • Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
  • Select
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash
  • Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
  • Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments
grub edit> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash
  • Press 'b' to boot

How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
  • At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument
boot: rescue
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to change root user/main user password if forgotten

# passwd root
  • To change main user password
# passwd system_main_username

How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
...
  • Replace with the following line
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Save the edited file

How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda is the location of /boot partition
# grub-install /dev/hda

How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
title		Microsoft Windows
root		(hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader	+1
  • Save the edited file

How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine

OR
  • See www.fs-driver.org

Советы и хитрости

Как перезапустить GNOME без перезагрузки компьютера

  • Прочтите #Общие замечания
  • Сохраните данные и закройте все запущенные приложения.
Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'
или
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

Как включать Num Lock при запуске GNOME?

sudo apt-get install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  • Найдите эту строку
...
exit 0
  • Перед ней добавьте следующие строки
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

Как запускать программы при запуске GNOME?

Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

Как ускорить Убунту

  • Читайте следующее сообщение: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=189192

Как переключиться в консольный режим из GNOME?

Нажмите 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • Для переключения консолей в текстовом режиме
Нажмите 'Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • Для переключения обратно в GNOME
Нажмите 'Alt + F7'

Как отключить возможность перезапуска X в GNOME с помощью Ctrl+Alt+Backspace?

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • В конец файла добавьте следующие строки
Section "ServerFlags"
	Option		"DontZap"		"yes"
EndSection

Как в GNOME по нажатию Ctrl+Alt+Del запускать System Monitor?

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

HКак обновить рабочий стол GNOME?

killall nautilus

Как обновить панель GNOME?

killall gnome-panel

Как включить автосохронение в Gedit и отключить создание файлов вида some_file~

/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> create_backup_copy (Снять отметку)
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> auto_save (Отметить)

Как в Nautilus показать все скрытые файлы/папки?

  • Прочтите #Общие замечания
  • Places -> Home Folder
  • Чтобы временно показать все скрытые файлы/папки
Нажмите 'Ctrl + H'
  • Чтобы скрытые файлы/папки показывались всё время
Edit Menu -> Preferences
Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Отметить)

Как в Nautilus просматривать файлы/папки с правами пользователя root?

sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    • Вставьте следующие строки в новый файл
[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • Для просмотра файлов/папок с правами пользователя root в Nautilus
    • Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

Как включить отображение иконок на рабочем столе (Компьютер, Домашняя папка, Корзина)

Не для Dapper'a---firingstone

/ -> apps -> nautilus -> desktop ->
computer_icon_visible (Отметить)
home_icon_visible (Отметить)
trash_icon_visible (Отметить)

Как изменить программу, с помощью которой по умолчанию открываются файлы определенного типа?

Кликните правой кнопкой мыши на файле -> Properties
Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program
Select "Open with" program (Отметить)

Как изменить почтовое приложение, используемое по умолчанию, на Mozilla Thunderbird?

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

Как открыть файлы с правами пользователя root с помощью правой кнопки мыши?

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  • Вставьте следующие строки в новый файл
for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
 gksudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done
  • Сохраните файл
chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
Кликните правой кнопкой мыши на файле -> Scripts -> Open as root

Как запретить звук в терминальном режиме?

Не для Dapper'a ---- firingstone

Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Не отмечено)

Как ускорить загрузку веб-страниц в Mozilla Firefox?

Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  • Перезапустите Mozilla Firefox

Как отключить звук при быстром поиске ссылок на веб-страницах в Mozilla Firefox?

Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  • Перезапустите Mozilla Firefox

Более простая замена apt-get (Synaptic)

  • Прочтите #Общие замечания
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • Чтобы подключить репозитарии Universe и Multiverse
    1. Settings -> Репозитарии
    1. В закладке Installation Media, нажимаем Add. Тут три разных репозитария; Dapper Drake, Security Updates and Updates. Выбираем каждый репозитарий и отмечаем Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse). Убедитесь что вы нажали OK для каждого репозитария, чтобы сохранить изменения
    2. Теперь вы должны видеть эти репозитарии под Channels.
  • Чтобы добавить Backports и PLF (новые версии многий приложений. Нет поддержки. Могут содержать запрещеные пакеты. Используйте на собственный риск.)
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Нажмите Add, потом Custom
    3. Вставте следующие 4 строки в окно и нажмите Add Repository, для каждой линии:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf dapper free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf dapper free non-free 
  • Обновить список пакетов (аналогично apt-get update)
Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
  • Установить все обновления ( apt-get upgrade)
Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • Поиск пакета ( apt-cache search package_name)
Edit Menu -> Search... Ввести имя пакета
  • Установить выбранный пакет (аналогично apt-get install package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • Удалить выбранный пакет(аналогично apt-get remove package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

What packages do the extra repositories provide

  • The PLF repository provides
    1. DVD playback support (libdvdcss2)
    2. Skype
    3. Sun Java SDK (Software Development Kit) and JRE (Java Runtime Environment)
    4. Opera Web browser
    5. RealPlayer 10
    6. Win32 binary multimedia codecs

How to install/uninstall .deb files

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  • To uninstall .deb file
sudo dpkg -r package_name

How to convert .rpm files to .deb files

sudo alien package_file.rpm

How to rename all files in directory at once

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb
  • To rename all files in directory at once
mvb NEW_NAME

How to manipulate all image files in directory at once

sudo apt-get install imagemagick
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  • To manipulate all image files in directory at once
bbips

How to set System-wide Environment Variables

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  • Save the edited file

How to save "man" outputs into files

man command | col -b > file.txt

How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
#hiddenmenu
...
  • Replace with the following line
hiddenmenu
  • Save the edited file

How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
timeout     3
...
  • Replace with the following line
timeout     X_seconds
  • Save the edited file

How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
default     0
...
  • Replace with the following line
default     X_sequence
  • Save the edited file

How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up

e.g. Assumed that hd0,1 is the location of Ubuntu boot partition
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
#      grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
#      grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
#      and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.
...
  • Add the following line below it
splashimage (hd0,1)/boot/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
  • Save the edited file

How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
splashimage.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splashimage.xpm && gzip splashimage.xpm

How to temporary skip boot-up services

Press 'Ctrl + C'

How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services

How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
sudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • Find this section
...
 stop)
  log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
  start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
  log_end_msg $?
...
  • Add the following line below it
  rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  • Save the edited file

How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode

Press 'Shift + Page Up'
  • To scroll down to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Down'

How to find out which version of Ubuntu I am using

cat /etc/issue

How to set up automatic background change (GNOME)

mkdir ~/.backgrounds
cd ~/.backgrounds
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/change_background.py
chmod +x change_background.py
  • To change desktop background every time you reboot your computer
export EDITOR=gedit && crontab -e
  • Add the following line at the end of file
@reboot ~/.backgrounds/change_background.py
For more information about periodic processes see
man 5 crontab

How to set up automatic background change (KDE)

  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Desktop -> Background
  • Choose Slide Show
  • Press Setup...
  • Press Add... to add pictures you wish to see as desktop background
  • Set 'Change picture after' to desired picture rotation interval.
  • Press 'OK'

How to add keyboard layouts for other languages

  • Go to System -> Preferences -> Keyboard
  • Choose Layouts
  • Press Add... to add the secondary keyboard layout. It is simpler to have two layouts; the maximum is currently four for Xorg.
  • Choose Layout Options
  • Expand option Group Shift/Lock behaviour
  • Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts. The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to use Alt+Shift.
  • Press Close.

See #How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet to add the Keyboard Indicator applet.

How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet

  • Right-click on empty space on the top panel so that you see the pop-up menu.
  • Click Add to Panel...
  • Choose Keyboard Indicator (it is under the Utilities section, at the end)

The Keyboard Indicator applet appears on the panel. The default language should be USA for U.S. English. You can either right-click on this applet for more options or see above on how to configure.

How to type extended characters

  • Add the keyboard layout US English International (with dead keys)
  • Make US English International (with dead keys) the default keyboard layout.

The key marked ['"] is now a dead key. When you press it, nothing happens. However if you press a consonant immediately afterwards, the consonant appears with an accent.

  • ' + a = á
  • ' + e = é
  • and so on for i-í, o-ó, y-ý, c-ć, z-ź, n-ń, l-ĺ, u-ú, r-ŕ
  • " + a = ä
  • " + e = ë
  • and so on for y-ÿ, u-ü, i-ï, o-ö

Similarly, ` and a consonant generates à, è, ù, ì, ò. Similarly, ~ and a consonant generates ã, ũ, ĩ, õ, ñ.

To type ' and ", press RightAlt+' and RightAlt+" respectively. To type ' and ", you may also press '+<space> and "+<space> respectively.

There are more characters available by keeping RightAlt pressed and typing a character. Therefore,

  • RightAlt+q = ä
  • RightAlt+w = å
  • RightAlt+e = é
  • RightAlt+r = ®
  • RightAlt+t = þ
  • RightAlt+y = ü
  • RightAlt+u = ú
  • RightAlt+i = í
  • RightAlt+o = ó
  • RightAlt+p = ö
  • RightAlt+[ and ] for « and » respectively.
  • RightAlt+a = á
  • RightAlt+s = ß
  • RightAlt+d = ð
  • RightAlt+l = ø
  • RightAlt+; = ¶
  • RightAlt+: = °
  • RightAlt+z = æ
  • RightAlt+c = ©
  • RightAlt+n = ñ
  • RightAlt+m = µ
  • RightAlt+, = ç
  • RightAlt+/ = ¿
  • RightAlt+1 = ¡
  • RightAlt+2 = ²
  • RightAlt+3 = ³
  • RightAlt+4 = ¤
  • RightAlt+5 = €
  • RightAlt+6 = ¼
  • RightAlt+7 = ½
  • RightAlt+8 = ¾
  • RightAlt+9 = ‘
  • RightAlt+0 = ’
  • RightAlt+- = ¥
  • RightAlt+= = ×
  • RightAlt+! = ¹
  • RightAlt+@, then o = ő (and Ő).
  • RightAlt+#, then a = ā (and Ā). Similarly for ēĒ, ūŪ, īĪ, ōŌ.
  • RightAlt+$ = £
  • RightAlt+% =
  • RightAlt+^ =
  • RightAlt+& =
  • RightAlt+*, then a = ą (and Ą). Similarly for ęĘ, įĮ.
  • RightAlt+(, then a = ă (and Ă)
  • RightAlt+(, then g = ğ (and Ğ)
  • RightAlt+), then a = å (and Å)
  • RightAlt+_ =
  • RightAlt++ = ÷

How to set the Compose key to type special characters

  • Click System, Preferences, Keyboard.
  • Under Layout Options, expand on Compose key position.
  • Choose Right-Win key is compose, click Close.

Now you can type extended characters using the RightWin key (next to AltGr), according to this keyboard settings file. Specifically, the lines that start with GDK_Multi_key are those that we can use here. The Compose key is actually GDK_Multi_key.

Some examples,

  • RightWin + C + = produces €
  • RightWin + = + C produces €
  • RightWin + C + O produces ©
  • RightWin + O + C produces ©
  • RightWin + a + ' produces á
  • RightWin + a + " produces ä
  • RightWin + a + ` produces à
  • RightWin + a + ~ produces ã
  • RightWin + a + * produces å
  • RightWin + a + ^ produces â
  • RightWin + a + > produces â
  • RightWin + a + , produces ą
  • RightWin + e + - produces ē
  • RightWin + S + 1 produces ¹
  • RightWin + S + 2 produces ²
  • RightWin + S + 3 produces ³

Сервера

AntiVirus Server

How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server

sudo apt-get install clamav

How to manually update virus databases

sudo freshclam

How to manually scan files/folders for viruses

sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses

e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
export EDITOR=gedit &&  sudo crontab -e
  • Append the following line at the end of file
00 00 * * *  sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders
  • Save the edited file

Print Server (cupsd)

How to install cupsd

Cupsd should be automatically installed during standart instaltion. Checkout if there is a file "/etc/init.d/cupsys". If you want to manually instal it, do
 sudo apt-get install cupsys*

How to add a printer

In gnome click on "System/Administration/Printing. And choose "Add printer". A "add printer wizard" should start and tell you what to do.

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from another Ubuntu machine

  • Make sure your local printer is well configured.
  • Server ip address: 192.168.0.1
  • Client ip address: 192.168.0.23
    • Server configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/cupsd.conf /etc/cups/cupsd.conf.backup
 sudo gedit /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
find the block
<Location />
  ...
  Allow localhost
  ...
</Location>
and add the following line into it.
 Allow 192.168.0.23
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
    • Client configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/client.conf /etc/cups/client.conf.backup
 sudo gedit /etc/cups/client.conf
And add the following line into it.
 ServerName 192.168.0.1
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now try "lpq" and you should see something like
 vitek@lightfox:~$ lpq
 HPLJ6P is ready
 no entries

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from a Windows machine

Samba Server

How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba
sudo apt-get install smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Save the edited file
  • To edit network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Find this section
...
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = no
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user 
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody 
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

 sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
 gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
Find the following lines
 ...
 # printing = cups
 # printcap name = cups
 ...
and uncomment them.
 printing = cups
 printcap name = cups
Restart cups server
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.

SSH Server

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
ssh username@192.168.0.1

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to mount remote folders into local Ubuntu machine (sshfs)

e.g. Assumed that remote machine has installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote machine folder location: /media/music
  • Install sshfs
sudo apt-get install sshfs
  • Load kernel driver for sshfs
sudo modprobe fuse
  • For permanent use add 'fuse' at the end of /etc/modules
sudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Join the 'fuse' user group
sudo adduser your_user_name fuse
  • Create local mountpoint in your home directory
mkdir ~/remote_music
  • Mount the remote folder into ~/remote_music
sshfs 192.168.0.1:/meida/music ~/remote_music

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download PuTTY: Here


How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

How to limit the user accounts that can connect through ssh remotely

e.g. If you enable the SSH server, then any user with a valid account can connect remotely
This can lead to security risks, as there exist remote password cracking tools that
try common username/password pairs.
  • Keep a backup of the ssh server configuration file with

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.ORIGINAL

  • Edit the configuration file

sudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

  • Change the parameter PermitRootLogin from yes to no. The superuser must not be able to connect directly from remote.
  • Add the parameter AllowUsers and specify the usernames (space separated) that can connect remotely.
  • You can also use DenyUsers for fine-grained selection of users.
  • If you enable the openssh server and you have no intention for now to enable remote connections, you may add AllowUsers nosuchuserhere to disable anyone connecting.

DHCP Server

How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment

e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
Domains: tm.net.my
Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1
sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
  • Find this line
...
INTERFACES=""
  • Replace with the following line
INTERFACES="eth0"
  • Save the edited file
sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "example.org";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#option domain-name "example.org";
#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
#default-lease-time 600;
#max-lease-time 7200;
  • Find this section
...
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name "internal.example.org";
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
 range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
 option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
 option domain-name "tm.net.my";
 option routers 192.168.0.1;
 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
 default-lease-time 600;
 max-lease-time 7200;
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart


Database Server

How to install MYSQL Database Server

sudo apt-get install mysql-server
mysqladmin -u root password db_user_password

How to install MYSQL Administrator

sudo apt-get install mysql-admin

Apache HTTP Server

How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service

sudo apt-get install apache2
  • http://localhost

How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install php4
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
  • Save the edited file
  • http://localhost/testphp.php

How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
sudo apt-get install php4-mysql
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/
<Directory /location_of_folder/>
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
  AllowOverride All
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
</Directory>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • http://localhost/URL-path

How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78
sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf
  • Find this line
Listen 80
  • Replace with the following line
Listen 78
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • http://localhost:78

How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
sudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
 <head>
 <title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>
 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
 <style type="text/css">
 /*<![CDATA[*/
 /* 
 DEFAULT TAG STYLES
 */
 body {
  background: #ffffff;
  margin-left: 20px;
  font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 9pt;
 }
 h1 {
  font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 15pt;
 }
 /*]]>*/
 </style>
 </head>
 <body>
 <?php
 require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
 error_reporting(E_ERROR);
 $url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
 $rss = fetch_rss($url);
 if ($rss) {
  echo "<h1>";
  echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
  echo "</h1>";
  foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
   $url = $item[link];
   $title = $item[title];
   $description = $item[description];
   echo "<li>";
   echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
   echo "$description<br/><br/>";
   echo "</li>";
  }
 }
 else {
  echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
 }
 ?>
 </body>
 </html>
  • Save the edited file
  • http://localhost/feeds/index.php

FTP Server

How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service

sudo apt-get install proftpd

How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
DenyFilter           \*.*/
...
  • Add the following line below it
DefaultRoot           ~
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to change the default port number for FTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77
sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Find this line
Port              21
  • Replace with the following line
Port              77
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
Read #How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

Streaming Media Server

How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service

e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files
sudo apt-get install gnump3d
  • http://localhost:8888

How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
root = /var/music
  • Replace with the following line
root = /home/music
  • Find this line
user = gnump3d
  • Replace with the following line
user = root
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart
  • http://localhost:8888

How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
port = 8888
  • Replace with the following line
port = 7878
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart
  • http://localhost:7878


Image Gallery Server

How to install Gallery for Image Gallery Server service

sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
sudo apt-get install jhead
sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh
  • http://localhost/gallery/setup/index.php
  • Gallery Configuration
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
Next Step ->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
General settings Tab ->
Admin password: Specify the password
Locations and URLs Tab ->
Album directory: /var/www/albums/
Temporary directory: /tmp/
Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
Save Config ->
  • http://localhost/gallery/albums.php

How to configure Gallery to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)

e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";
  • Save the edited file
  • http://www.url.com/gallery/albums.php

How to configure Gallery to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";
  • Save the edited file
  • http://192.168.0.1/gallery/albums.php

How to backup/restore Gallery data

sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/
  • To restore Gallery data
sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /

Проблемы и их решение

Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)

Synchronizing clock to ntp.ubuntulinux.org... (taking too long to load)

service_name = ntpdate

How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  • Find this line
...
UTC=yes
...
  • Replace with the following line
UTC=no
  • Save the edited file
  • System -> Administration -> Time and Date
Set the correct time/date
sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  • Find this section
...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...
  • Replace with the following lines
auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
sudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}
pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}
pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
System -> Preferences -> Sound
Sound preferences
General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME

rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications.menu

How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus-1 restart

Обновление версии Ubuntu

Как обновиться с Dapper Drake до Edgy Eft (в разработке)

  • скоро...

Удаленные Темы

  • Темы удаленные с этого руководства могут быть найдены тут